Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 153–179 | Cite as

The Neuropsychology of Heading and Head Trauma in Association Football (Soccer): A Review

  • Andrew Rutherford
  • Richard Stephens
  • Douglas Potter


Association Football (soccer) is the most popular and widespread sport in the world. A significant proportion of the injuries suffered in football are head injuries involving trauma to the brain. In normal play, head trauma frequently arises from collisions, but some researchers have claimed that it also may arise as a consequence of heading the ball. Although assessments based on biomechanical analyses are equivocal on the potential for brain injury due to football heading, a growing literature seems to support the claim that neuropsychological impairment results from general football play and football heading in particular. However, this review suggests a distinction is required between the neuropsychological effects of concussive and subconcussive head trauma and that all of the neuropsychological studies conducted so far suffer from methodological problems. At best, a few of these studies may be regarded as exploratory. The review concludes that presently, although there is exploratory evidence of subclinical neuropsychological impairment as a consequence of football-related concussions, there is no reliable and certainly no definitive evidence that such impairment occurs as a result of general football play or normal football heading. The neuropsychological consequences of football-related subconcussive effects await confirmatory investigation.

football soccer heading head trauma concussion 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Rutherford
    • 1
  • Richard Stephens
    • 1
  • Douglas Potter
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyKeele University, Keele, StaffordshireUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of DundeeDundeeUnited Kingdom

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