Advertisement

Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 153–179 | Cite as

The Neuropsychology of Heading and Head Trauma in Association Football (Soccer): A Review

  • Andrew Rutherford
  • Richard Stephens
  • Douglas Potter
Article

Abstract

Association Football (soccer) is the most popular and widespread sport in the world. A significant proportion of the injuries suffered in football are head injuries involving trauma to the brain. In normal play, head trauma frequently arises from collisions, but some researchers have claimed that it also may arise as a consequence of heading the ball. Although assessments based on biomechanical analyses are equivocal on the potential for brain injury due to football heading, a growing literature seems to support the claim that neuropsychological impairment results from general football play and football heading in particular. However, this review suggests a distinction is required between the neuropsychological effects of concussive and subconcussive head trauma and that all of the neuropsychological studies conducted so far suffer from methodological problems. At best, a few of these studies may be regarded as exploratory. The review concludes that presently, although there is exploratory evidence of subclinical neuropsychological impairment as a consequence of football-related concussions, there is no reliable and certainly no definitive evidence that such impairment occurs as a result of general football play or normal football heading. The neuropsychological consequences of football-related subconcussive effects await confirmatory investigation.

football soccer heading head trauma concussion 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Abreau, F., Templer, D., Schuyler, B., and Hutchison, H. (1990). Neuropsychological assessment of football players. Neuropsychology 4: 175–181.Google Scholar
  2. American Academy of Neurology (1997). Practice parameter: The management of concussion in sports (summary statement)—Report of the Quality Standards Sub-committee. Neurology 48: 581–585.Google Scholar
  3. American Academy of Paediatrics Policy Statement (1988). Recommendations for participation in competitive sports. Phys. Sportsmed. 16: 165–167.Google Scholar
  4. Anzil, F. (1979). The football player's jumping ability and head playing. In First International Congress on Sports Medicine Applied to Football, Rome, pp. 643–652.Google Scholar
  5. Asken, M., and Schwartz, R. (1998). Heading the ball in soccer: What's the risk of brain injury? Phys. Sportsmed. 26: 37–43.Google Scholar
  6. Autti, T., Sipila, L., Autti, H., and Salonen, O. (1997). Brain lesions in players of contact sports. Lancet 349: 1144.Google Scholar
  7. Bailes, J., and Cantu, R. (2001). Head injuries in athletes. Neurosuregery, 48, 26–46.Google Scholar
  8. Bangsbo, J., Norregaard, L. & Thorsoe, F. (1991). Activity profile of competition football. Can. J. Sport Sci. 16: 110–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes, B., Cooper, L., Kirkendall, D., McDermott, T., Jordan, B., and Garrett, W. J. (1998). Concussion history in elite male and female football players. Am. J. Sports Med. 26: 433–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baroff, G. (1998). Is heading a football ball injurious to brain function? J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 13: 45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bauer, J. A., Thomas, T. S., Cauraugh, J. H., Kaminski, T. W., and Hass, C. J. (2001). Impact forces and neck muscle activity in heading by collegiate female soccer players. J. Sports Sci. 19: 171–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bender, R., and Lange, S. (2001). Adjusting for testing—When and how? J. Clin. Epidemiol. 54: 343–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bent, I., McIlroy, R., Mousley, K., and Walsh, P. (2000). Heading for injury time?The link between football and Alzheimer's disease. In Bent, I., McIlroy, R., Mousley, K., and Walsh, P. (eds.), Football Confidential, BBC Worldwide, London, pp. 184–194.Google Scholar
  14. Bernstein, D. M. (1999). Recovery from mild head injury. Brain Inj. 13: 151–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Binder, L. M. (1986). Persisting symptoms after mild head injury. A review of the postconcussive syndrome. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 8: 323–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Binder, L. M., Rohling, M. L., and Larrabee, G. J. (1997). A review of mild head trauma. Part 1: Meta-analytic review of neuropsychological studies. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 19: 421–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boden, B., Kirkendall, D., and Garrett, W. (1998). Concussion incidence in elite college football players. Am. J. Sports Med. 26: 238–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brooks, N., Kupshik, G., Wilson, L., Galbraith, S., and Ward, R. (1987). A neuropsychological study of active amateur boxers. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 50: 997–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown, T. (2000). Association of Football Statisticians (n.d.). Part 12 of the History of Football—1875–1876. Retrieved August 7, 2003, from http://www.11v11.co.uk/textpage.php3?linkpageid=227Google Scholar
  20. Butler, R. J., Forsythe, W. I., Beverly, D. W., and Adams, L. M. (1993). A prospective controlled investigation of the cognitive effects of amateur boxing. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 56: 1055–1061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cantu, R. C. (1996). Head injuries in sport. Br. J. Sports Med. 30: 289–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cantu, R. C. (1998). Second-impact syndrome. Clin. J. Sport Med. 17: 37–44.Google Scholar
  23. Chou, C. C., and Nyquist, G. W. (1974). Analytical Study of the Head Injury Criterion (HIC), SAE, Warrendale, PA.Google Scholar
  24. Cook, T. D., and Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings, Rand McNally, Chicago.Google Scholar
  25. Corder, E. H., Saunders, A. M., Strittmatter, W. J., Schmechel, D. E., Gaskell, P. C., Small, G. W., et al. (1993). Gene dose of apolipoprotein-e type-4 allele and the risk of Alzheimers-disease in late–onset families. Science 261: 921–923.Google Scholar
  26. Delaney, J. S., and Drummond, R. (1999). Has the time come for protective headgear for football? Clin. J. Sport Med. 9: 121–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dick, R. (1994). A summary of head and neck injuries in collegiate athletics using the NCAA injury surveillance system. In Hoerner, E. (ed.), Head and Neck Injuries in Sports, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 13–19.Google Scholar
  28. Downs, D. S., and Abwender, D. (2002). Neuropsychological impairment in soccer athletes. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 42: 103–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Edgar, B. (March 10, 2001). A heavy price to pay. The Times. Online-retrieved on 18 April 2001 from http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/0,621–94953,00.htmlGoogle Scholar
  30. Ekblom, B. (1986). Applied physiology of football. Sports Med. 3: 50–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Elson, L. M., and Ward, C. C. (1994). Mechanisms and pathophysiology of mild head injury. Semin. Neurol. 14: 8–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Erlanger, D., Kutner, K., Barth, J., and Barnes, R. (1999). Neuropsychology of sports-related head injury: Dementia pugilistica to post concussion syndrome. Clin. Neuropsychol. 13: 193–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Espir, M., Hodge, I., and Matthews, P. (1972). Footballer's migraine. BMJ 3: 352.Google Scholar
  34. Fields, K. (1989). Head injury in football. Phys. Sportsmed. 17: 69–73.Google Scholar
  35. FIFA. (2002a). FIFA Survey www.fifa.com/fifa/survey_E.html. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), 11 Hitzigweg, 8030 Zurich, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  36. FIFA. (2002b). Laws of the Game 2002 Edition; Law 2—The Ball www.fifa.com/fifa/handbook/laws/2002/LOTG2002_E.pdf. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), 11 Hitzigweg, 8030 Zurich, Switzerland 12.Google Scholar
  37. Forsyth, A., May, P., and Engleman, L. (1971). Prediction by multiple regression. How many variables to enter? J. Psychiatr. Res. 8: 119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Forsyth, A., Engleman, L., Jenrich, R., and May, P. (1973). A stopping rule for variable selection in multiple regression. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 68: 75–77.Google Scholar
  39. Frenguelli, A., Ruscito, P., Bicciolo, G., Rizzo, S., and Masserelli, M. (1991). Head and neck trauma in sporting activities. J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg. 19: 178–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Friedman, G., Froom, P., Sazbon, L., Grinblatt, I., Shochina, M., Tsenter, J., et al. (1999). Apolipoprotein E-∈4 genotype predicts a poor outcome in survivors of traumatic brain injury. Neurology 52: 244–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gennarelli, T. (1986). Mechanisms and pathophysiology of cerebral concussion. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 1: 23–29.Google Scholar
  42. Gennarelli, T., Thibault, L., and Graham, D. (1998). Diffuse axonal injury: An important form of traumatic brain damage. Neuroscientist 4: 202–215.Google Scholar
  43. Goodman, J. C. (1994). Pathologic changes in mild head injury. Semin. Neurol. 14: 19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Green, G., and Jordan, S. (1996). Chronic head and neck injuries. In Garrett, W., Kirkendall, D., and Contiguglia, S. (eds.), The US Football Sports Medicine Book, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 191–204.Google Scholar
  45. Green, G., and Jordan, S. (1998). Are brain injuries a significant problem in football? Clin. Sports Med. 17: 795–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gronwall, D., and Wrightson, P. (1975). Cumulative effect of concussion. Lancet 7943: 995–997.Google Scholar
  47. Gurdjian, E. S., Lissner, H. R., Hodgson, V. R., and Patrick, L. M. (1966). Mechanism of head injury. Clin. Neurosurg. 12: 112–128.Google Scholar
  48. Haglund, Y., and Ericsson, E. (1993). Does amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage?A review of recent investigations. Am. J. Sports Med. 21: 97–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Harrison, D., and Walls, R. (1990). Blindness following minor head trauma in children: A report of two cases with a review of the literature. J. Emerg. Med. 8: 21–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Heilbronner, R. L., Henry, G. K., and Carson-Brewer, M. (1991). Neuropsychologic test-performance in amateur boxers. Am. J. Sports Med. 19: 376–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hitchcock, E., and Karmi, M. (1982). Sports injuries to the central nervous system. J. R. Coll. Surg. Edinb. 27: 46–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Holden, J. (March 11, 2001a). FA must tackle Alzheimer's pain. Sunday Express Sport, p. 105.Google Scholar
  53. Holden, J. (March 18, 2001b). That's all mega-rich soccer would have to find to offer justice to heroes stricken by Alzheimer's disease; GBP 20,000. Sunday Express Sport, p. 104.Google Scholar
  54. Hovda, D. A. (1996). Metabolic dysfunction. In Narayan, R. K., Wilberger, J. E., and Povlishock, J. T. (eds.), Neurotrauma, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 1459–1478.Google Scholar
  55. Hovda, D. A., Prins, M., Becker, D. P., Lee, S., Bergsneider, M., and Martin, N. A. (1999). Neurobiology of concussion. In Bailes, J. E., Lovell, M. R., and Maroon, J. C. (eds.), Sports-Related Concussion, Quality Medical Publishing, St. Louis, pp. 327–332.Google Scholar
  56. Hughes, R. (November 3, 1974a). Head damage. Football's unmentionable subject. The Sunday Times, p. 29.Google Scholar
  57. Hughes, R. (November 10, 1974b). Head damage. A Warning to all players. The Sunday Times. p. 30.Google Scholar
  58. Hunt, M., and Fulford, S. (1990). Amateur soccer: Injuries in relation to field position. Br. J. Sports Med. 24: 265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jaeger, R. G., and Halliday, T. R. (1998). On confirmatory versus exploratory research. Herpetologica 54: S64-S66.Google Scholar
  60. Jordan, S., Green, E., Galantly, H., Mandelbaum, B., and Jabour, B. (1996). Acute and chronic brain injury in United States National Team Football Players. Am. J. Sports Med. 24: 205–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jordan, B. D., Relkin, N. R., Ravdin, L. D., Jacobs, A. R., Bennett, A., and Gandy, S. (1997). Apolipoprotein E in 4 associated with chronic traumatic brain injury in boxing. JAMA 278: 136–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jordan, B. D., and Zimmerman, R. D. (1998). Magnetic resonance imaging in amateur boxers. Arch. Neurol. 45: 1207–1208.Google Scholar
  63. Kawanishi, A., Nakayama, M., and Kadota, K. (1999). Heading injury precipitating subdural hematoma associated with arachnoid cysts—Two case reports. Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo) 39: 231–233.Google Scholar
  64. Kemp, P. M., Houston, A. S., Macleod, M. A., and Pethybridge, R. J. (1995). Cerebral perfusion and psychometric testing in military amateur boxers and controls. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 59: 368–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. King, N. (1997). Mild head injury: Neuropathology, sequelae, measurement and recovery. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 36: 161–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kirk, R. E. (1995). Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences (3rd Ed.), Brookes/Cole Pacific Grove, CA.Google Scholar
  67. Kirkendall, D. T., and Garrett, W. E. (2001). Heading in soccer: Integral skill or grounds for cognitive dysfunction. J. Athl. Train. 36: 328–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kirkendall, D. T., Jordan, S. E., and Garrett, W. E. (2001). Heading and head injuries in soccer. Sports Med. 31: 369–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kross, R., Ohler, K., and Barolin, G. S. (1983). Cerebral Trauma due to heading—Computerized EEG-analysis of football players. EEG-EMG 14: 209–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kutner, K. C., Erlanger, D. M., Tsai, J., Jordan, B., and Relkin, N. R. (2000). Lower cognitive performance of older football players possessing Apolipoprotein E ∈4. Neurosurgery 47: 651–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Laananen, D. H. (1980). Aircraft crash survival design guide, Vol. 11: Aircraft crash environment and human tolerance. NTIS Report ADAo82512, National Technical Information Services, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  72. La Cava, G. (1961). A clinical and statistical investigation of traumatic lesions due to sport. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 1: 8–15.Google Scholar
  73. Lees, A., and Nolan, L. (1998). The biomechanics of football: A review. J. Sports Sci. 16: 211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Levendusky, T. A., Armstrong, C. W., Eck, J. S., Jeziorowski, J., and Kugler, L. (1988). Impact characteristics of two types of soccer balls. In Reilly, T., Lees, A., Davids, K., and Murphy, W. J. (eds.), Science and Football, E & F.N. Spon, London, pp. 385–393.Google Scholar
  75. Lewin, G. (1989). The incidence of injury in an English professional football club during one competitive season. Physiotherapy 75: 601–605.Google Scholar
  76. Lezak, M. (1995). Neuropsychological Assessment (3rd Ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  77. Lindsay, K. W., McLatchie, G., and Jennett, B. (1980). Serious head injury in sports. BMJ 281: 789–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lochen, E. (1970). Morbus meniere. A complexity of pathological manifestations. A neuropsychological study. Acta Neurol. Scand. 46: 1–31.Google Scholar
  79. Ludbrook, J. (1998). Multiple comparison procedures updated. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 25: 1032–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lye, T. C., and Shores, E. A. (2000). Traumatic brain injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: A review. Neuropsychol. Rev. 10: 115–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lynch, J., and Bauer, J. (1996). Heading. In Garrett, W., Kirkendall, D., and Contiguglia, S. (eds.), The US Football Sports Medicine Book, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 81–85.Google Scholar
  82. MacRae, A. W. (1995). Descriptive and inferential statistics. In Coleman, A. M. (ed.), Psychological Research Methods and Statistics, Longman, London, pp. 35–57.Google Scholar
  83. Marshall, S. W., and Spencer, R. J. (2001). Concussion in rugby: The hidden epidemic. J. Athl. Train. 36: 334–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Matser, J., Kessels, A., Jordan, B., Lezak, M., and Troost, J. (1998). Chronic traumatic brain injury in professional football players. Neurology 51: 791–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Matser, J., Kessels, A., Jordan, B., Lezak, M., and Troost, J. (1999). Neuropsychological impairment in amateur football players. JAMA 282: 971–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Matser, J., Kessels, A., Lezak, M., and Troost, J. (2001). A dose–response relation of headers and concussions with cognitive impairment in professional soccer players. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 23: 770–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Matthews, W. (1972). Footballer's migraine. BMJ 2: 326–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. McCarra, K. (1988). Football kicks off. In MacNish, M. (ed.), The Story of Scotland (Vol. 1), Sunday Mail, Glasgow, pp. 158–162.Google Scholar
  89. McCrory, P. R., and Berkovic, S. F. (1998). Second impact syndrome. Neurology 50: 677–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. McGrath, A., and Ozanne-Smith, J. (1997). Heading injuries out of football: A review of the literature (125). Monash University Accident Research Centre.Google Scholar
  91. McLatchie, G., Brooks, N., Galbraith, S., Hutchison, J., Wilson, L., Melville, I., et al. (1987). Clinical neurological examination, neuropsychology, electroencephalography and computed tomographic head scanning in active amateur boxers. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 50: 96–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. McMaster, W., and Walter, M. (1978). Injuries in soccer. Am. J. Sports Med. 6: 354–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Murelius, O., and Haglund, Y. (1991). Does Swedish Amateur Boxing lead to chronic brain-damage. A retrospective neuropsychological study. Acta Neurol. Scand. 83: 9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Neilson, D. (1985). The Patter: A Guide to Current Glasgow Usage, Glasgow District Libraries, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  95. Ochs, S. R., Evans, K., and Webbe, F. M. (2000). Soccer heading recency interacts with frequency in predicting impaired cognitive performance. Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 15: 814–815.Google Scholar
  96. Office for National Statistics (1998). Living in Britain, Results from the 1996 General Household Survey, HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  97. Ommaya, A. K., and Gennarelli, T. A. (1974). Cerebral concussion and traumatic unconsiousness. Correlation of experimental and clinical observations of blunt head injuries. Brain 97: 633–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Parkin, A. (1997). Memory and Amnesia (2nd Ed.), Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  99. Powell, J., and Barber-Foss, K. (1999). Traumatic brain injury in high school athletes. JAMA 282: 958–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Putukian, M., Echemendia, R. J., and Machin, S. (2000). The acute neuropsychological effects of heading in soccer: A pilot study. Clin. J. Sport Med. 10: 104–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rabadi, M. H., and Jordan, B. D. (2001). The cumulative effect of repetitive concussion in sports. Clin. J. Sport Med. 11: 194–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Reid, S. E., Epstein, H. M., Louis, M. W., and Reid, S. E., Jr. (1975). Physiologic response to impact. J. Trauma 15: 150–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Reitan, R. M., and Wolfson, D. (1994). A selective and critical review of neuropsychological deficits and the frontal lobes. Neuropsychol. Rev. 4: 161–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rutherford, A., and Fernie, G. (in preparation).Google Scholar
  105. Sandelin, J., Santavirta, S., and Kiviluoto, O. (1985). Acute football injuries in Finland in 1980. Br. J. Sports Med. 19: 30–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Schneider, K. (1984). Das risiko einer hirnverletzung beim fussball-kopfstoss [The risk of brain injury during football heading]. Unafallheilkunde 87: 40–42.Google Scholar
  107. Schneider, K. (1985). Der einfluss motorischer und mechanischer stossbedingungen auf das verletzungsrisiko beim fussball-kopfstoss [The effect of motor skill and impact mechanics on the injury risk during football heading]. Sportwissenschaft 15: 183–192.Google Scholar
  108. Schneider, K., and Zernicke, R. (1988). Computer-simulation of head impact—Estimation of head-injury risk during football heading. Int. J. Sport Biomech. 4: 358–371.Google Scholar
  109. Share, B. (1997). Slanguage—A Dictionary of Irish Slang, Gill & MacMillan, Dublin.Google Scholar
  110. Smith, T., Stewart, P., and Herrick, R. (1995). Retrospective exposure assessment. In Harrington, J., and Gardiner, K. (eds.), Occupational Hygiene (2nd Ed.), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 308–323.Google Scholar
  111. Smodlaka, V. (1984). Medical aspects of heading the ball in soccer. Phys. Sportsmed. 12: 127–131.Google Scholar
  112. Sortland, O., and Tysvaer, A. (1989). Brain damage in former football players. An evaluation by cerebral computed tomography. Neuroradiology 31: 44–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Spear, J. (1995). Are professional footballers at risk of developing dementia? Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 10: 1011–1014.Google Scholar
  114. Spreen, O., and Strauss, E. (1998). A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms and Commentary (2nd Ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  115. Stephens, R., Rutherford, A., and Potter, D. (2000). Is heading the ball in football a cause of neuropsychological impairment in amateur adult players? Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Cognitive Psychology Section Conference, University of Essex, September 6–8, 2000.Google Scholar
  116. Stewart, W. F., Gordon, B., Selnes, O., Bandeenroche, K., Zeger, S., Tusa, R. J., et al. (1994). Prospective-study of central-nervous-system function in amateur boxers in the United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 139: 573–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Stokes, M. A., McKeever, J. A., McQuillan, R. F., and O'Higgins, N. J. (1994). A season of football injuries. Ir. J. Med. Sci. 163: 290–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sutton, J. (October 2, 1999). Trouble ahead. New Scientist, p. 24.Google Scholar
  119. Symons, D., and Abwender, D. (1999). Evidence of neuropsychological impairment in football athletes. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention, Boston.Google Scholar
  120. Teasdale, G. M., Nicoll, J. A., Murray, G., and Fiddes, M. (1997). Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with outcome after head injury. Lancet 350: 1069–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Thatcher, R. W., Walker, R. A., Gerson, I., and Geisler, F. H. (1989). EEG discriminant analyses of mild head trauma. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 73: 94–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Thomassen, A., Juul-Jensen, P., de Fine Olivarius, B., Braemer, J., and Christensen, A. (1979). Neurological, electroencephalographic and neuropsychological evaluation of 53 former amateur boxers. Acta Neurol. Scand. 60: 352–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Tysvaer, A. T. (1990). Injuries of the Brain and Cervical Spine in Association Football. Thesis, Stavanger, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  124. Tysvaer, A. T. (1992). Head and neck injuries in soccer: Impact of minor trauma. Sports Med. 14: 200–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Tysvaer, A., and Lochen, E. (1991). Football injuries to the brain. A neuropsychologic study of former football players. Am. J. Sports Med. 19: 56–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Tysvaer, A. T., and Storli, O. V. (1981). Association football injuries to the brain. A preliminary report. Br. J. Sports Med. 15: 163–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Tysvaer, A., and Storli, O. (1989). Football injuries to the brain: A neurologic and electroencephalographic study of active football players. Am. J. Sports Med. 17: 573–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Tysvaer, A. T., Storli, O. V., and Bachen, N. I. (1989). Football injuries to the brain: A neurologic and electroencephalographic study of former players. Acta Neurol. Scand. 80: 151–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Urakawa, K. S., and Landers, D. M. (2000). Effects of heading the ball and head injury on the cognitive functioning of soccer players. J. Sport Psychol. 22: S108.Google Scholar
  130. Uzzell, B. P. (1999). Mild head injury: Much ado about something. In Varney, N. R., and Roberts, R. J. (eds.), The Evaluation and Treatment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, LEA, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 1–14.Google Scholar
  131. van Duijn, C. M. (1996). Epidemiology of the dementias: Recent developments and new approaches. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 60: 478–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Watson, M. R., Fenton, G. W., McClelland, R. J., Lumsden, J., Headley, M., and Rutherford, W. H. (1995). The post-concussional state—Neurophysiological aspects. Br. J. Psychiatry 167: 514–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Webbe, F. M., and Ochs, S. R. (2003). Recency and frequency of soccer heading interact to decrease neurocognitive performance. Appl. Neuropsychol. 10: 31–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Weightman, D., and Browne, R. (1974). Injuries in association and rugby football. Br. J. Sports Med. 8: 183–187.Google Scholar
  135. Westfall, P. H., and Young, S. S. (1993). Resampling-Based Multiple Testing: Examples and Methods for p-Value Adjustment, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  136. Withers, R., Maricic, Z., Wasilewski, S., and Kelly, L. (1982). Match analysis of Australian professional football players. J. Hum. Mov. Stud. 8: 159–176.Google Scholar
  137. Witol, A., and Webbe, F. (1994). Neuropsychological deficits associated with football play. Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 9: 204–205.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Rutherford
    • 1
  • Richard Stephens
    • 1
  • Douglas Potter
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyKeele University, Keele, StaffordshireUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of DundeeDundeeUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations