AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 13–23 | Cite as

Understanding AIDS Risk Behavior Among Sexually Active Urban Adolescents: An Empirical Test of the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills Model

  • William A. Fisher
  • Sunyna S. Williams
  • Jeffrey D. Fisher
  • Thomas E. Malloy

Abstract

The current research applied the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to examine psychological determinants of AIDS risk behavior in a sample of sexually active, primarily minority, urban adolescents (N = 148) drawn from an area of high adolescent HIV seroprevalence. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the IMB model fit the data and that the constructs of the model accounted for 46–75% of the variance in AIDS risk behavior among sexually active urban male and female adolescents. Structural equation modeling also examined the fit of a restricted special case of the IMB model, focusing on motivation and behavioral skills as determinants of AIDS risk behavior, and showed that this model fit the data as well. Discussion focuses on the generality of the IMB model of AIDS risk behavior across diverse populations at risk, on the comparative value of the full IMB model and the restricted special case of this model, and on the implications of these findings for interventions to reduce AIDS risk behavior among sexually active urban adolescents.

AIDS risk behavior information–motivation–behavioral skills model urban minority adolescents 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1989). Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of control over AIDS infection. In V. M. Mays, G. W. Albee, and S. F. Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS. Psychological approaches (pp. 128–141). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Basen-Engquist, K., and Parcel, G. S. (1992). Attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy: A model of adolescents' HIV-related sexual risk behavior. Health Education Quarterly, 19, 263–277.Google Scholar
  4. Bollen, K. A., and Long, J. A. (1993). Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Boyer, C. B., and Kegeles, S. M. (1991). AIDS risk and AIDS prevention among adolescents. Social Science and Medicine, 33, 11–23.Google Scholar
  6. Burke, D. S., Brundage, J. F., Goldenbaum, M., Gardner, L. I., Peterson, M., Visitine, R., Redfield, R. R., and Walter Reed Retrovirus Group (1990). Human immunodeficiency virus infections in teenagers: Seroprevalence among applicants for United States Military Service. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, 2074–2077.Google Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control. (1990). National HIV seroprevalence surveys: Summary of results. Data from serosurveillance activities through 1989. Atlanta, GA: Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control.Google Scholar
  8. Centers for Disease Control. (1995). Facts about adolescents and HIV/AIDS. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  9. Centers for Disease Control. (1996). Facts about HIV/AIDS among African Americans and Hispanics in the United States. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  10. Collins, C. (1997). Dangerous inhibitions: How America is letting AIDS become an epidemic of the young. San Francisco: Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California at San Francisco.Google Scholar
  11. De Vincenzi, I. (1994). A longitudinal study of human immunode-ficiency virus transmission by heterosexual partners. New England Journal of Medicine, 331, 341–346.Google Scholar
  12. DiClemente, R. J. (1992). (Ed.). Adolescents: A generation in jeopardy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. DiClemente, R. J., Durbin, M., Siegel, D., Krasnovsky, F., Lazarus, N., and Comacho, T. (1992). Determinants of condom use among junior high school students in a minority, inner-city school district. Pediatrics, 89, 197–202.Google Scholar
  14. Fishbein, M., and Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  15. Fishbein, M., and Middlestadt, S. E. (1989). Using the theory of reasoned action as a framework for understanding and changing AIDS-related behaviors. In V. M. Mays, G. W. Albee, and S. F. Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS. Psychological approaches (pp. 93–110). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Fisher, J. D. (1988). Possible effects of reference group-based social influence on HIV-risk behavior and HIV prevention. American Psychologist, 43, 914–920.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher, J. D., and Fisher, W. A. (1992). Changing AIDS risk behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 455–474.Google Scholar
  18. Fisher, J. D., and Fisher, W. A. (1999). Individual-level theories of HIV risk behavior change. In D. Peterson and R. J. DiClemente (Eds.), Handbook of HIV prevention. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  19. Fisher, J. D., Fisher, W. A., Misovich, S. J., Kimble, D. L., and Malloy, T. E. (1995). Changing AIDS risk behavior: Effects of an intervention emphasizing AIDS risk reduction information, motivation, and behavioral skills in a college student population. Health Psychology, 6, 114–123.Google Scholar
  20. Fisher, J. D., Fisher, W. A., Williams, S. S., and Malloy, T. E. (1994). Empirical tests of an information-motivation-behavioral skills model of AIDS preventive behavior. Health Psychology, 94, 238–250.Google Scholar
  21. Fisher, J. D., Misovich, S. J., and Fisher, W. A. (1992). The impact of perceived social norms on adolescents' AIDS risk behavior and prevention. In R. J. DiClemente (Ed.), Adolescents and AIDS: A generation in jeopardy (pp. 117–136). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Fisher, W. A. (1990). All together now: An integrated approach to preventing adolescent pregnancy and STD/HIV infection. SIECUS Report, 18, 1–11.Google Scholar
  23. Fisher, W. A., and Fisher, J. D. (1993). A general social psychological model for changing AIDS risk behavior. In J. B. Pryor and G. Reeder (Eds.), The social psychology of HIV infection (pp. 127–153). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  24. Fisher, W. A., Fisher, J. D., and Rye, B. J. (1995). Understanding and promoting AIDS preventive behavior: Insights from the theory of reasoned action. Health Psychology, 14, 255–264.Google Scholar
  25. Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Warner, T. D., and Smith, G. E. (1993). Perceived vulnerability to HIV infection and AIDS preventive behavior: A critical review of the evidence. In J. B. Pryor and G. Reeder (Eds.), The social psychology of HIV infection (pp. 59–84). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Hein, K. (1992). Adolescents at risk for HIV acquisition. In R. DiClemente (Ed.), Adolescents: A generation in jeopardy (pp. 3–16). Menlo Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Hingson, R. W., Strunin, L., Berlin, B., and Hereen, T. (1990). Beliefs about AIDS, use of alcohol and drugs, and unprotected sex among Massachusetts adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 295–299.Google Scholar
  28. Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences (1986). Confronting AIDS: Directions for public health, health care, and research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  29. Jemmott, J. B., Jemmott, L. S., Spears, H., Hewitt, N., and Cruz-Collins, M. (1992). Self-efficacy expecations and condom use intentions among inner city Black adolescent women: A social cognitive approach to AIDS risk behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 50–59.Google Scholar
  30. Jemmott, J. B., and Jones, J. M. (1993). Social psychology and AIDS among ethnic minority individuals: Risk behaviors and strategies for changing them. In J. B. Pryor and G. Reeder (Eds.), The social psychology of HIV infection (pp. 183–224). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Joreskog, K. G., and Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8.12. Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  32. Kelly, J. A., and St. Lawrence, J. S. (1988). The AIDS health crisis: Psychological and social interventions. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  33. Kirby, D., and DiClemente, R. J. (1994). School-based interventions to prevent unprotected sex and HIV among adolescents. In R. J. DiClemente and J. L. Peterson (Eds.), Preventing AIDS. Theories and methods of behavioral interventions (pp. 117–139). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  34. Lowry, R., Holtzman, D., Truman, B. I., Kann, L., Collins, J. L., and Kolbe, L. J. (1994). Substance use and HIV-related sexual behaviors among US high school students: Are they related? American Journal of Public Health, 84, 1116–1120.Google Scholar
  35. Melchert, T., and Burnett, K. F. (1990). Attitudes, knowledge, and sexual behavior of high-risk adolescents: Implications for counseling and sexuality education. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68, 293–298.Google Scholar
  36. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1992). Selected behaviors that increase risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy among high school students (pp. 145–150). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service.Google Scholar
  37. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1993). 1993 sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service.Google Scholar
  38. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1996, February 16). Update: Mortality attributable to HIV infection among persons aged 25–44 years—United States, 1994. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service.Google Scholar
  39. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1997). Sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Public Health Service.Google Scholar
  40. National Commission on AIDS (1993). AIDS: An expanding tragedy. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  41. O'Leary, A., Goodhart, F., Jemmott, L. S., and Boccher-Lattimore, D. (1992). Predictors of safer sexual behavior on the college campus: A social cognitive theory analysis. Journal of American College Health, 40,, 254–263.Google Scholar
  42. Pleck, J. H., Sonenstein, F., and Ku, L. C. (1990, August). Adolescent males' contraceptive attitudes and consistency of condom use. Paper presented at the 98th convention of the American Psychological Association, Boston, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  43. Reiss, I. L., and Leik, R. K. (1989). Evaluating strategies to avoid AIDS: Number of partners vs. use of condoms. Journal of Sex Research, 26, 411–433.Google Scholar
  44. Rosenberg, P. S. (1995). Scope of the AIDS epidemic in the United States. Science, 270, 1372–1376.Google Scholar
  45. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1986). Surgeon General's report on AIDS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  46. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1991). Healthy people 2000: National health promotion and disease prevention objectives (DHHS Publication No. HHS–91–50212). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  47. Walter, H. J., Vaughan, R. D., Ragin, D. R., Cohall, A. T., and Kasen, S. (1994). Prevalence and correlates of AIDS-related behavioral intentions among urban minority high school students. AIDS Education and Prevention, 6, 339–350.Google Scholar
  48. Williams, S. S., Doyle, T. M., Pittman, L. D., Weiss, L. H., Fisher, J. D., and Fisher, W. A. (1998). Roleplayed safer sex skills of heterosexual college students influenced by both personal and partner factors. AIDS and Behavior, 2, 177–188.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • William A. Fisher
    • 1
  • Sunyna S. Williams
    • 2
  • Jeffrey D. Fisher
    • 3
  • Thomas E. Malloy
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyState University of New York College at BuffaloBuffalo
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ConnecticutStorrs
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyRhode Island CollegeProvidence
  5. 5.Department of Community HealthUniversity of IllinoisUrbana-ChampaignIllinois
  6. 6.Department of Psychology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Social Science Center 6430University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations