Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 291–313 | Cite as

The Spanish Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Five Mental Health Outcome Measures

  • Leida E. Matías-Carrelo
  • Ligia M. Chávez
  • Gisela Negrón
  • Glorisa Canino
  • Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola
  • Sue Hoppe


In this paper we report on the process of translating five mental health outcome measures into Spanish and adapting them to Latino culture. The instruments considered are the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Scale, the Burden Assessment Scale, the Family Burden Scale, Lehman's Quality of Life Interview and the Continuity of Care in Mental Health Services Interview. A systematic process of translation and adaptation of the instruments was followed with the goal of achieving cultural equivalence between the English and Spanish versions of the instruments in five dimensions: semantic, content, technical, construct, and criterion equivalence. In this paper we present data about the semantic, content, and technical equivalence. Various steps were taken to achieve equivalence in these dimensions, including the use of a bilingual committee, a multi-national bilingual committee, back-translation, and focus groups with mental health patients and their relatives.

adaptation focus groups outcome measures translation 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leida E. Matías-Carrelo
    • 1
  • Ligia M. Chávez
    • 2
  • Gisela Negrón
    • 3
  • Glorisa Canino
    • 4
  • Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola
    • 5
  • Sue Hoppe
    • 6
  1. 1.Graduate School of Public Health, Matícas-Carrelo, Medical Sciences CampusUniversity of Puerto RicoSan JuanPuerto Rico
  2. 2.Graduate School of Public Health and, Behavioral Sciences Research Institute, Medical Sciences CampusUniversity of Puerto RicoSan JuanPuerto Rico
  3. 3.Department of Social Work and Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences CampusUniversity of Puerto RicoSan JuanPuerto Rico
  4. 4.Department of Pediatrics and Behavioral Sciences Research Institute, Medical Sciences CampusUniversity of Puerto RicoSan JuanPuerto Rico
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyCalifornia State UniversityFresno
  6. 6.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TexasSan Antonio

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