Experimental & Applied Acarology

, Volume 28, Issue 1–4, pp 55–68 | Cite as

Phylogeny, Evolution and Historical Zoogeography of Ticks: A Review of Recent Progress

  • Stephen C. Barker
  • Anna Murrell


There has been much progress in our understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of ticks, particularly hard ticks, in the past 5 years. Indeed, a consensus about the phylogeny of the hard ticks has emerged. Our current working hypothesis for the phylogeny of ticks is quite different to the working hypothesis of 5 years ago. So that the classification reflects our knowledge of ticks, several changes to the nomenclature of ticks are imminent. One subfamily, the Hyalomminae, will probably be sunk, yet another, the Bothriocrotoninae n. subfamily, will be created. Bothriocrotoninae n. subfamily, and Bothriocroton n. genus, are being created to house an early-diverging (‘basal’) lineage of endemic Australian ticks that used to be in the genus Aponomma (ticks of reptiles). There has been progress in our understanding of the subfamily Rhipicephalinae. The genus Rhipicephalus is almost certainly paraphyletic with respect to the genus Boophilus. Thus, the genus Boophilus will probably become a subgenus of Rhipicephalus. This change to the nomenclature, unlike other options, will keep the name Boophilus in common usage. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus may still called B. microplus, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus may still be called B. annulatus, but the nomenclature will have been changed to reflect our knowledge of the phylogeny and evolution of these ticks. New insights into the historical zoogeography of ticks will also be presented.

Ixodida ticks phylogeny evolution 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Institute for Molecular BiosciencesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Institute for Molecular BiosciencesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

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