Advertisement

Irrigation and Drainage Systems

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 213–238 | Cite as

Water Pricing and Sustainability of Self-Governing Irrigation Schemes

  • Pierre-Yves Le Gal
  • Thierry Rieu
  • Charles Fall
Article

Abstract

The sustainability of self-governingirrigation schemes is currently underpressure in many countries as publicfinancial support is decreasing.Furthermore, growing global concernregarding water scarcity means thatefficient water use is essential.Theoretically the choice and implementationof a water-pricing system should play acentral role in achieving this objective,both by recovering water costs and byencouraging farmers to adopt more efficientbehaviour. In the Senegal River Delta newlyestablished water users associations (WUAs)have chosen low water charges, which areaffordable for the majority of farmers butwhich underestimate long-term maintenancecosts. Combined with the difficulty ofcollecting and managing farmers' fees, thischoice has drawn them into a vicious circleleading to scheme deterioration and poorwater service. New alternatives have beendiscussed with them using a simulation toolthat takes into account both the watercosts and the farmers' incomes. Comparedwith the present fixed water charge basedonly on cultivated land, a two-part optionbased both on equipped and irrigated areasensures the recovery of fixed expenses suchas maintenance, while encouraging farmersto intensify their farming systems byadopting double cropping. Neverthelesschoosing a relevant water charge does notensure by itself the sustainability of anirrigation scheme. Combined supportproviding WUAS and farmers with efficientadvice regarding management andorganisational skills should alsocontribute significantly to achieve thisprime objective.

decision support irrigation management transfer irrigation scheme management Senegal River simulation water charge 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amir I. & Fisher F.M. 1999. Analysing agricultural demand for water with an optimising model. Agr. Syst. 61: 45-56.Google Scholar
  2. Bos M.G. & Wolters W. 1990. Water charges and irrigation efficiency. Irrigational Drainage Systems 4(3): 267-278.Google Scholar
  3. Carruthers I. 1988. Irrigation under threat: a warning brief for irrigation enthusiasts. IIMI Review 2: 8-11.Google Scholar
  4. De Geus A.P. 1992. Modelling to predict or to learn? Eur. J. Oper. Res. 59: 1-5.Google Scholar
  5. Dinar A. 1997. Water Pricing Experiences: An International Perspective. World Bank Technical Paper no. 386, Washington D.C., 164 p.Google Scholar
  6. Forster C., Malcolm D. & Langford J. 1999. Toward a Financially Sustainable Irrigation System: Lessons from the State of Victoria, Australia, 1984-1994. World Bank Technical Paper no 413, World Bank, Washington DC, USA, 107 p.Google Scholar
  7. Gleyses G., Loubier S. & Terreaux J.-P. 2002. Le coût de la distribution de l'eau. Méthode et application à l'irrigation. In: P. Garin, P.-Y. Le Gal & Th. Ruf (Eds) La Gestion Périmètres Irrigués Collectifs (pp 155-167). Collection Colloques, PCSI, CEMAGREF, CIRAD, IRD, lMontpellier, France.Google Scholar
  8. Jamin J.-Y. & Tourrand J.-F. 1986. Evolution de l'agriculture et de l'élevage dans une zone de grands aménagements: le Delta du Fleuve Sénégal. Cah. Rech. Dev. 12: 21-34.Google Scholar
  9. Jean M. 2001. Pricing policy and practical application: the example of the Canal de Provence. In: Pricing Water. Economics, Environment and Society (pp 141-147). European Communities, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  10. Landais E. 1998. Modelling farm diversity. New approaches to typology building in France. Agr. Syst. 58(4): 505-527.Google Scholar
  11. Le Gal P.-Y. 1995. Gestion collective des systèmes de culture en situation d'incertitude: cas de l'organisation du travail en double culture dans le delta du fleuve Sénégal. Unpublished PhD thesis, Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon, 215 p. + annexes.Google Scholar
  12. Le Gal P.-Y. & Papy F. 1998. Co-ordination processes in a collectively managed cropping system: double cropping of irrigated rice in Senegal. Agr. Syst. 57(2): 135-159.Google Scholar
  13. Le Gal P.-Y., Passouant M., Gachelin C., Blanc D.& Sy M. 1999. Améliorer le fonctionnement des périmètres irrigués collectifs à travers leur système d'information: exemple de la maintenance sur deux cas ouest-africains. In: J.C. Legoupil, C. Dancette, P. Godon, I.M. Maïga, K.M. Nidiaye (Eds) Pour un Développement Durable de l'Agriculture Irriguée dans la Zone Soudano-Sahélienne (pp 346-357). CIRAD-Coopération française-CTA-PSI, Dakar, Sénégal.Google Scholar
  14. Le Gal P.-Y., de Nys E., Passouant M., Raes D. & Rieu Th., 2001. Intervention et décision collective dans les périmètres irrigués. In E. Malézieux, G. Trebuil et M. Jaeger (Eds) Modélisation des Agroécosystèmes et Aide à la Décision (pp 351-369). Collection Repères, CIRAD-INRA, Montpellier, France.Google Scholar
  15. Le Gal P.-Y., Rieu T., Roberto G., Fall C. & de Nys E., 2002. Apports de la simulation pour l'aide au choix d'un système tarifaire sur les périmètres irrigués. In P. Garin, P.-Y. Le Gal, Th. Ruf (Eds) La Gestion Périmètres Irrigués Collectifs (pp 265-280). Collection Colloques, PCSI, CEMAGREF, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier, France.Google Scholar
  16. Montginoul M. 1997. Une approche économique de la gestion de l'eau d'irrigation: des instruments, de l'information et des acteurs. Cemagref, Montpellier, France, 296 p.Google Scholar
  17. Montginoul M. & Rieu T. 1996, Instruments économiques et gestion de l'eau d'irrigation en France. Houille Blanche 8: 47-54.Google Scholar
  18. Nicol J.P., 2001. Irrigation water pricing at BRL. In: Economic Instruments and Water Policies in Central and Eastern Europe: Issues and Options (pp 83-92). Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Szentendre, Hungary.Google Scholar
  19. Ostrom E. 1992. Crafting institutions for self-governing irrigation systems. ICS Press, San Francisco, USA, 111 p.Google Scholar
  20. Palacio V., Gleyses G. & Morardet S. 1995. Typologie d'exploitations et demande en eau d'irrigation. Ingénieries 2: 39-48.Google Scholar
  21. Pearce D., 2001.Water pricing: investigating conceptual and theoretical issues. In: PricingWater. Economics, Environment and Society (pp 55-66). European Communities, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  22. Perret S. & Touchain E. 2002. A simulation-based approach to assess the economic viability of smallholding irrigation schemes in South Africa: conceptualisation and first implementation. CIRAD-TERA / University of Pretoria, CIRAD-TERA, no. 02/02, Pretoria, South Africa, 24 p.Google Scholar
  23. Raes D., Sy B. & Feyen J. 1995. Water use in rice schemes in Senegal river Delta and Valley. Irrig. Drain. Syst. 9: 117-128.Google Scholar
  24. Rieu T. & Loubier S. 2001. How easy is it to calculate the full cost of an irrigation water supply system? European Commission, DG Environment, CIRCA website, Brussels, Belgium, 18 p.Google Scholar
  25. Rieu T., Chohin A. & Fernandez S., 2002. Rôle et stratégies des acteurs dans le contexte d'émancipation des périmètres irrigués dans le Nordeste au Brésil. Comm Conf. Irrigation Water Policies: Micro and Macro considerations. World Bank-AMAECO-IWREC. Agadir Maroc, 15-17 juin 2002, 16 p.Google Scholar
  26. Ringler C., Rosegrant M.W. & Paisner M.S. 2000. Irrigation and water resources in Latin America and the Caribbean: challenges and strategies. EPTD Discussion Paper, Environment and Production Technology Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, USA, 92 p.Google Scholar
  27. Sampath R.K. 1992. Issues in irrigation pricing in developing countries. World Dev. 20: 967-977.Google Scholar
  28. Strosser P. 1997. Analysing alternative policy instruments for the irrigation sector. An assessment of the potential for water market development in the Chishtian sub-division. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Holland, 243 p.Google Scholar
  29. Tardieu H. (1999). La valeur de l'eau en agriculture irriguée: une information économique nécessaire pour mieux réguler la gestion de l'eau et des productions agricoles dans un marché ouvert. In: Trans. 17th ICID Congress on Irrigation and Drainage (Vol. 1G, pp 33-51). Granada, Spain.Google Scholar
  30. Tolub A., 2000. Prendre en compte la diversité des exploitations agricoles dans la gestion des grands périmètres irrigués du delta du fleuve Sénégal. ISRA-PSI-CORAF, Saint-Louis, Sénégal, 66 p.Google Scholar
  31. Tsur Y. & Dinar A. 1997. On the relative efficiency of alternative methods for pricing irrigation water and their implementation. World Bank Econ. Rev. 11: 243-262.Google Scholar
  32. Vincent L. 1990. Sustainable small-scale irrigation development. Issues for farmers, governments and donors. Water Resour. Dev. 6(4): 250-259.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre-Yves Le Gal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thierry Rieu
    • 3
  • Charles Fall
    • 4
  1. 1.CIRAD-TERA, TA 60/15Montpellier Cedex 5France
  2. 2.CERDESUniversity of NatalScottsvilleSouth Africa
  3. 3.CEMAGREFMontpellier Cedex 1France
  4. 4.SAEDSaint-Louis

Personalised recommendations