Diacetyl production and growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on multiple substrates

  • B.D. Jyoti
  • A.K. Suresh
  • K.V. Venkatesh

Abstract

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a heterolactic acid bacterium, which can be used to produce flavour compounds like diacetyl and acetoin. Various startegies have been applied to improve the growth rate and diacetyl yield. The use of multiple substrates affected growth as well as the yield of diacetyl. Growth on a medium containing glucose demonstrated a diauxic growth profile, with the second phase of growth being on the product, lactic acid. L. rhamnosus also grew on a medium containing citrate. Growth on medium containing glucose+citrate demonstrated simultaneous utilization of carbon sources. L. rhamnosus did not grow in a medium containing acetate and also did not co-metabolize it with glucose. Maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was found to increase in the case of simultaneous utilization of glucose+citrate (0.38 h−1) as compared to glucose as the sole carbon source (0.28 h−1). The yields of diacetyl were also found to increase for glucose + pyruvate and glucose + citrate (0.10 and 0.05 g g−1 of glucose, respectively) as compared to glucose alone (0.01 g g−1 of glucose). The productivity of diacetyl on medium containing glucose and citrate was double that of a medium containing only citrate, although the yields were comparable.

Co-metabolism diacetyl diauxic growth Lactobacillus rhamnosus multiple substrates 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anuradha, R., Suresh, A.K. & Venkatesh, K.V. 1999 Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to lactic acid. Process Biochemistry 35, 367-375.Google Scholar
  2. Benito de Cardenas, I.L., Medina, R. & Oliver, G. 1992 Effect of glucose and lactose on the utilization of citrate by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus ATCC 7469. Revista Argentina de Microbiologia 24, 136-144.Google Scholar
  3. Branen, A.L. & Keenan, T.W. 1971 Diacetyl and acetoin production by Lactobacillus casei. Applied Microbiology 22, 517-521.Google Scholar
  4. Chuang, L.F. & Collins, E.B. 1968 Biosynthesis of diacetyl in bacteria and yeast. Journal of Bacteriology 95, 2083-2089.Google Scholar
  5. Cogan, T.M., Fitzgerald, R.J. & Doonan, S. 1984 Acetolactate synthase of Leuconostoc lactis and its regulation of acetoin production. Journal of Dairy Research 51, 597-604.Google Scholar
  6. Curic, M., de Richelieu, M., Henriksen, C.M., Jochumsen, K.V., Villadsen, J. & Nilsson, D. 1999 Glucose/citrate co-metabolism in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis with impaired alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase. Metabolic Engineering 1, 291-298.Google Scholar
  7. Garrigues, C., Goupil-Feuillerat, N., Cocaign-Bousquet, M., Renault, P., Lindley, N.D. & Loubiere, P. 2001 Glucose metabolism and regulation of glycolysis in Lactococcus lactis strains with decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity. Metabolic Engineering 3, 211-217.Google Scholar
  8. Goupry, S., Croguennec, T., Gentil, E. & Robins, R.J. 2000 Metabolic flux in glucose/citrate co-fermentation by lactic acid bacteria as measured by isotopic ratio analysis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 182, 207-211.Google Scholar
  9. Henriksen, C.M. & Nilsson, D. 2001 Redirection of pyruvate catabolism in Lactococcus lactis by selection of mutants with additional growth requirements. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 56, 767-775.Google Scholar
  10. Hickey, M.W., Hiller, A.J. & Jago, G.R. 1983 Metabolism of pyruvate and citrate in Lactobacilli. Australian Journal of Biological Science 36, 487-496.Google Scholar
  11. Jay, J.M. 1982 Antimicrobial Properties of Diacetyl. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 44, 525-532.Google Scholar
  12. Juni, E. 1952 Mechanism of formation of acetoin by bacteria. Journal of Biological Chemistry 715-726.Google Scholar
  13. Krishnaswamy, M.A. & Babel, F.J. 1951 Biacetyl production by culture of lactic acid producing Streptococci. Journal of Dairy Science 64, 1527-1539.Google Scholar
  14. Lee, W. 1991 Production of diacetyl (2,3, butanediol) by continuous fermentation with simultaneous product separation. PhD thesis, Purdue University, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Lopez de Felipe, L. & Hugenholtz, J. 1999 Pyruvate flux distribution in NADH-oxidase-overproducing Lactococcus lactis strain as a function of culture conditions. FEMS Microbiology Letters 179, 461-466.Google Scholar
  16. Medina de Figueroa, R., Alvarez, F., Pesce de Ruiz Holgado, A., Oliver, G. & Sesma, F. 2000 Citrate utilization by homo-and hetero-fermentative lactobacilli. Microbiological Research 154, 313-320.Google Scholar
  17. Montville, T.J., Hsu, A.H. & Meyer, M.E. 1987 High-efficiency conversion of pyruvate to acetoin by Lactobacillus plantarum during pH-controlled and fed-batch fermentations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53, 1798-1802.Google Scholar
  18. Nielsen, J. & Villadsen, J. 1994 Bioreaction engineering Principles. pp. 7-9. New York and London: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-30644688-X.Google Scholar
  19. Schmitt, P. & Divies, C. 1990 Co-metabolism of citrate and lactose by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 71, 72-74.Google Scholar
  20. Schmitt, P., Vasseur, C., Phalip, V., Huang, D.Q., Divies, C. & Prevost, H. 1997 Diacetyl and acetoin production from the cometabolism of citrate and xylose by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 47, 715-718.Google Scholar
  21. Seitz, E.W., Sandine, W., Elliker, P.R. & Day, R. 1963a Studies on diacetyl synthesis by Streptococcus diacetylactis. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 9, 431-441.Google Scholar
  22. Suomaleinen, H. & Ronkainen, P. 1968 Mechanism of diacetyl formation in yeast fermentation. Nature 220, 792-793.Google Scholar
  23. Venkatesh, K.V., Doshi, P. & Rengaswamy, R. 1997 Modelling of microbial growth for sequential utilization in a multisubstrate environment. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 56, 635-644.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • B.D. Jyoti
    • 1
  • A.K. Suresh
    • 1
  • K.V. Venkatesh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyBombay, PowaiIndia

Personalised recommendations