Mobile Networks and Applications

, Volume 8, Issue 5, pp 551–566 | Cite as

Independent-Tree Ad hoc MulticAst Routing (ITAMAR)

  • Sajama
  • Zygmunt J. Haas


Multicasting is an efficient means of one to many communication and is typically implemented by creating a multicasting tree. Because of the severe battery power and transmission bandwidth limitations in ad hoc networks, multicast routing can significantly improve the performance of this type of network. However, due to the frequent and hard-to-predict topological changes of ad hoc networks, maintenance of a multicasting tree to ensure its availability could be a difficult task. We borrow from the concept of Alternate Path routing, which has been studied for providing QOS routing, effective congestion control, security, and route failure protection, to propose a scheme in which a set of multicasting trees is continuously maintained. In our scheme, a tree is used until it fails, at which time it is replaced by an alternative tree in the set, so that the time between failure of a tree and resumption of multicast routing is minimal. In this paper, we introduce the basic scheme, termed ITAMAR, which is a framework for efficient multicasting in ad hoc networks. We present a number of heuristics that could be used in ITAMAR to compute a set of alternate trees. The heuristics are then compared in terms of transmission cost, improvement in the average time between multicast failures and the probability of usefulness. Simulations show significant gains over a wide range of network operational conditions. In particular, we show that using alternate trees has the potential of improving mean time between interruption by 100–600% in a 50 node network (for most multicast group sizes) with small increase in the tree cost and the route discovery overhead. We show that by renewing the backup tree set, probability of interruptions can be kept at a minimum at all times and that allowing some overlap among trees in the backup set increases the mean time between interruptions.

multicasting ad hoc networks multicasting tree independent trees route stability 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    A. Ballardie, Core Based Trees (CBT Version 2) multicast routing û protocol specification, RFC-2189 (September 1997).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    D. Bertsekas and R. Gallagher, tiData Networks (Prentice Hall, New York, 1992).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    E. Bommaiah, A. McAuley, R.R. Talpade and M. Liu, AMRoute: Ad hoc multicast routing protocol, Internet-Draft, IETF (August 1998).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    L. Briesemeister and G. Hommel, Role-based multicast in highly mobile but sparsely connected ad hoc networks, in: ti2000 First Annual Workshop on Mobile and Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (2000) pp. 45–50.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    C. Chiang, M. Gerla and L. Zhang, Shared tree wireless network multicast, in: tiIEEE International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN'97) (September 1997).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    C.-H. Chow, On multicast path finding algorithms, in: tiProceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM'91 (1991) pp. 1274–1283.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    W.J. Cook, W.H. Cunningham, W.R. Pulleyblank and A. Schrijver, tiCombinatorial Optimization (Wiley, New York, 1998).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S.E. Deering, D. Estrin, D. Farinacci, V. Jacobson, C.-G. Liu and L. Wei, An architecture for wide-area multicast routing, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 4(2) (1996) 153–162.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    J. Edmonds, Minimum partition of a matroid into independent subsets, J. Res. NBS 69B (1965) pp. 147–153.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves and E.L. Madruga, The core-assisted mesh protocol, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on Ad-Hoc Networks 17(8) (1998).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    I. Gitman, R.M. Van Slyke and H. Frank, Routing in packet switching broadcast radio networks, IEEE Transactions on Communications 24 (1976) 926–930.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    J. Jubin and J. Tornow, The DARPA packet radio network protocols, Proceedings of the IEEE (1987) 21–32.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    B. Kadaba and J.M. Jaffe, Routing to multiple destinations in computer networks, IEEE Transactions on Communications 31(3) (1983) 343–351.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    V.P. Kompella, J.C. Pasquale and G.C. Polyzos, Multicast routing for multimedia communication, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 1(3) (1993) 286–292.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    G.D. Kondylis, S.V. Krishnamurthy, S.K. Dao and G.J. Pottie, Multicasting sustained CBR and VBR traffic in wireless ad hoc networks, in: tiInternational Conference on Communications (2000) pp. 543–549.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    E.L. Lawler, Matroid intersection algorithms, Mathematical Programing (September 1975) pp. 31–56.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    S.-J. Lee, M. Gerla and C.-C. Chiang, On-demand multicast routing protocol, in: tiProceedings of the IEEE WCNC'99, New Orleans, LA (September 1999) pp. 1298–1304.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    S. Lee and C. Kim, Neighbor supporting ad hoc multicast routing protocol, in: ti2000 First Annual Workshop on Mobile and Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (2000) pp. 37–44.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    J. Meggers and G. Filios, Multicast communication in ad hoc networks, in: tiVehicular Technology Conference (1998) pp. 372–376.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    K. Obraczka and G. Tsudik, Multicast routing issues in ad hoc networks, in: tiIEEE International Conference on Universal Personal Communication (ICUPC'98) (October 1998).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    R.G. Parker and R.L. Rardin, tiDiscrete Optimization (Academic Press, New York, 1988).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    S. Paul, tiMulticasting on the Internet and Its Applications (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1998).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    M. Pearlman and Z. Haas, Improving the performance of query-based routing protocols through 'Diversity Injection', in: tiProceedings of the WCNC'99, New Orleans, LA (September 1999).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    M. Pearlman and Z. Haas, On the impact of alternate path routing for load balancing in mobile ad hoc networks, in: tiProceedings of the MobiHOC'2000, Boston, MA (September 1999) pp. 3–10.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    E. Royer and C.E. Perkins, Multicast operation of ad-hoc, on-demand distance vector routing protocol, in: tiProceedings of the MobiCom'99 (August 1999).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    C. Sankaran and A. Ephremides, Multicasting with multiuser detection in ad-hoc wireless networks, in: tiProceedings of the Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS) (1998) pp. 47–54.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    P. Sinha, R. Sivakumar and V. Bharghavan, MCEDAR: Multicast Core-Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing, in: tiProceedings of the Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (1999) pp. 1313–1318.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    B.M. Waxman, Performance evaluation of multipoint routing algorithms, in: tiProceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'93 (1993) pp. 980–986.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    J.E. Wieselthier, G.D. Nguyen and A. Ephremides, Algorithms for energy-efficient multicasting in ad hoc wireless networks, in: tiProceedings of the IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM) (1999) pp. 1414–1418.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    C.W. Wu and Y.C. Tay, AMRIS: A multicast protocol for ad hoc wireless networks, in: tiProceedings of the IEEE MILCOM'99, Atlantic City, NJ (November 1999).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    H. Zhou and S. Singh, Content based multicast in ad hoc networks, in: ti2000 First Annual Workshop on Mobile and Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (2000) pp. 51–60.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajama
    • 1
  • Zygmunt J. Haas
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electrical EngineeringCornell UniversityIthaca, NYUSA

Personalised recommendations