Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 76, Issue 1–3, pp 247–253 | Cite as

Discovery of pheophytin function in the photosynthetic energy conversion as the primary electron acceptor of Photosystem II

  • Vyacheslav V. Klimov


This minireview describes the discovery of participation of pheophytin, a metal-free derivative of chlorophyll, in the early steps of photosynthetic solar energy conversion as the primary electron acceptor of Photosystem II.

electron acceptor A.V. Klevanik V.V. Klimov. A.A. Krasnovsky pheophytin Photosystem II V. A. Shuvalov 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Blankenship RE (2002) Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis, Blackwell Scientific, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Diner BA and Rappaport F (2002) Structure, dynamics and energetics of the primary photochemistry of Photosystem II of oxygenic photosynthesis. Ann Rev Plant Biol 53: 551–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Delosme R and Joliot P (2002) Period four oscillations in chlorophyll a fluorescence. Photosynth Res 73: 165–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Duysens LNM and Sweers HE (1963) Mechanism of two photochemical reactions in algae as studied by means of fluorescence. In: Miyachi S (ed) Studies on Microalgae and Photosynthetic Bacteria, pp 253–372. University Tokyo Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  5. Gläser M, Wolf C and Renger G (1976) Indirect evidence for a very fast recovery kinetics of chlorophyll-aII in spinach chloroplasts. Z Naturforch 31C: 712–721Google Scholar
  6. Govindjee, van de Ven M, Preston C, Seibert M and Gratton E (1990) Chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime distributions in open and closed Photosystem II reaction center preparations. Biochim Biophys Acta 1015: 173–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Greenfield SR, Seibert M, Govindjee and Wasielewski M (1997) Direct measurement of the effective rate constant for primary charge separation in isolated photosystem II reaction centers. J Phys Chem B 101: 2251–2255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Joliot P (2003) Period-four oscillations of the flash-induced oxygen formation in photosynthesis. Photosynth Res 76: 65–72 (this issue)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jursinic P and Govindjee (1977) Temperature dependence of delayed light emission in the 6 to 340 microsecond range after a single flash in chloroplasts. Photochem Photobiol 26: 617–628Google Scholar
  10. Karapetyan NV and Klimov VV (1973) Nature of reversible and irreversible decrease of fluorescence during illumination of chloroplasts under reductive conditions. Fiziol Rast 20: 545–553Google Scholar
  11. Karapetyan NV, Klimov VV, Krakhmaleva IN and Krasnovskii AA (1971) Induction of fluorescence in chloroplasts and chromatophores under reductive conditions. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 201: 1244–1247Google Scholar
  12. Ke B (2001) Photosynthesis: Photobiochemistry and Photobiophysics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  13. Klevanik AV, Klimov VV, Shuvalov VA and Krasnovskii AA (1977) Reduction of pheophytin in the light reaction of Photosystem II of higher plant. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 236: 241–244 [in Russian]Google Scholar
  14. Klevanik AV, Allakhverdiev SI, Shuvalov VA and Klimov VV (1991) The origin of the variable chlorophyll fluorescence of Photosystem II. Biol Mem 8: 1053–1065 [in Russian]Google Scholar
  15. Klimov VV (1973) Investigation of photoinduced changes of chlorophyll fluorescence in photosynthesis. PhD Thesis, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  16. Klimov VV and Krasnovsky AA (1981) Pheophytin as the primary electron acceptor in Photosystem 2 reaction centres. Photosynthetica 15: 592–609Google Scholar
  17. Klimov VV, Klevanik AV, Shuvalov VA and Krasnovsky AA (1977) Reduction of pheophytin in the primary light reaction of Photosystem II. FEBS Lett 82: 183–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Klimov VV, Allakhverdiev SI and Pashchenko VZ (1978) Measurement of the activation energy and lifetime of fluorescence of photosystem 2 chlorophyll. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 242: 1204–1207 [in Russian]Google Scholar
  19. Klimov VV, Allakhverdiev SI, Demeter S and Krasnovskii AA (1979a) Photoreduction of pheophytin in Photosystem 2 of chloroplasts with respect to redox potential of the medium. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 249: 227–230 [in Russian]Google Scholar
  20. Klimov VV, Allakhverdiev SI and Krasnovskii AA (1979b) EPR signal at photoreduction of pheophytin in Photosystem 2 reaction centres of chloroplasts. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 249: 485–488 [in Russian]Google Scholar
  21. Klimov VV, Allakhverdiev SI, Shutilova NI and Krasnovskii AA (1980a) Investigation of pheophytin photoreduction and chlorophyll P680 photooxidation in preparations of Photosystem II from pea and Chlamydomonas reinhardii. Fiziol Rast 27: 315–326 [in Russian]Google Scholar
  22. Klimov VV, Dolan E and Ke B (1980 b) EPR properties of an intermediary electron acceptor (pheophytin) in Photosystem II reaction centers at cryogenic temperatures. FEBS Lett 112: 97–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klimov VV, Dolan E, Shaw ER and Ke B (1980c) Interaction between the intermediary electron acceptor (pheophytin) and a possible plastoquinone-iron complex in Photosystem II reaction centers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 7227–7231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klimov VV, Shuvalov VA and Heber U (1985) Photoreduction of pheophytin as a result of electron donation from the watersplitting system to Photosystem II reaction centers. Biochim Biophys Acta 809: 345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klimov VV, Allakhverdiev SI and Ladygin VG (1986) Photoreduction of pheophytin in Photosystem II of the whole cells of green algae and cyanobacteria. Photosynth Res 10: 355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Knaff DB (1977) The primary reaction of plant Photosystem II. Photochem Photobiol 26: 327–340Google Scholar
  27. Nugent JHA, Diner BA and Evans MCW (1981) Direct detection of the electron acceptor of Photosystem II, evidence that Q is an iron-quinone complex. FEBS Lett 124: 241–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nujis AM, van Gorkom HJ, Plijter JJ and Duysens LMN (1986) Primary charge separation and excitation of chlorophyll a in Photosystem II particles from spinach as studied by picosecond absorbance-difference spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta 848: 170–171Google Scholar
  29. Renger G (2003) Apparatus and mechanism of photosynthetic oxygen evolution: a personal perspective. Photosynth Res 76: 269–288 (this issue)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Seibert M and Wasielewski MR (2003) The isolated Photosystem II reaction center: first attempts to directly measure the kinetics of primary charge separation. Photosynth Res 76: 263–268 (this issue)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shuvalov VA, Klimov VV, Dolan E, Parson WW and Ke B (1980) Nanosecond fluorescence and absorbance changes in Photosystem II at low redox potential. Pheophytin as an intermediary electron acceptor. FEBS Lett 118: 279–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Van Best JA and Mathis P (1978) Kinetics of reduction of the oxidized primary electron donor of Photosystem II in spinach chloroplasts and in Chlorella cells in the microsecond and nanosecond time ranges following flash excitation. Biochim Biophys Acta 503: 178–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wasielewski MR, Johnson DG, Seibert M and Govindjee (1989) Determination of the primary charge separation rate in isolated Photosystem II reaction centers with 500 femtosecond time resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 524–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zouni A, Witt H-T, Kern J, Fromme P, Kraub N, Saenger W and Orth P (2001) Crystal structure of Photosystem II from Synechococcus elongatus at 3.8 Å resolution. Nature 409: 739–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vyacheslav V. Klimov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Basic Biological Problems, Russian Academy of SciencesPushchino, Moscow regionRussia

Personalised recommendations