Research in Higher Education

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 435–454 | Cite as

The Development of Process Indicators to Estimate Student Gains Associated with Good Practices in Undergraduate Education

  • George D. Kuh
  • C. Robert Pace
  • Nick Vesper


The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the development of psychometrically sound process indicators of student performance is described. Second, the results are reported of a test of the utility of these indicators with six samples of men and women students (n = 911 in each group) from 19 baccalaureate, 27 master's, and 29 doctoral-granting institutions. Process indicators represent behaviors associated with desired outcomes of college and estimate the extent to which students are engaged in these activities. Selected items from the College Student Experiences Questionnaire were used to create measures of three good educational practices: faculty-student contact, cooperation among students, and active learning. Active learning and cooperation among students in that order were the best predictors of gains for both women and men at all three types of institutions. Student background characteristics had only trivial influences on educational gains. Implications are discussed for institutional policy and further research.


Active Learning Student Performance Educational Practice Institutional Policy Process Indicator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • George D. Kuh
    • 1
  • C. Robert Pace
  • Nick Vesper
  1. 1.Higher Education Program, School of EducationIndiana UniversityBloomington

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