Advertisement

Natural Language Semantics

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 249–287 | Cite as

Pluractionality and Complex Quantifier Formation

  • Malte Zimmermann
Article

Abstract

This paper investigates the effects of (surface) DP-internal quantifying expressions on semantic interpretation. In particular, I investigate two syntactic constructions in which an adjective takes scope out of its embedding DP, thus raising an interesting question for strict compositionality. Regarding the first construction, I follow Larson (1999) and assume that the adjective incorporates into the determiner of its DP, forming a complex quantifier [D+A]. I present new evidence in favor of this analysis. Since Larson's semantic analysis of complex quantifiers [D+A] makes a wrong prediction, I propose an alternative, empirically more adequate analysis that treats D+A compounds as pluractional quantifiers in the sense of Lasersohn (1995). Finally, I turn to the second construction, arguing that – despite superficial similarities to the first construction - it should not be analyzed in terms of complex quantifier formation, but in terms of LF-movement of the adjective to Spec,DP. The discussion suggests that there is more than one way for DP-internal modifiers to take DP-external scope in natural language.

Keywords

Natural Language Semantic Analysis Semantic Interpretation Quantifier Formation Wrong Prediction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barwise, J. and R. Cooper: 1981, 'Generalized Quantifiers and Natural Language', Linguistics and Philosophy 4, 159–219.Google Scholar
  2. Bolinger, D.: 1967, 'Adjectives in English: Attribution and Predication', Lingua 18, 1–34.Google Scholar
  3. Brisson, C.: 1998, Distributivity, Maximality, and Floating Quantifiers, PhD dissertation, Rutgers University.Google Scholar
  4. Chierchia, G.: 1998, 'Plurality of Mass Nouns and the Notion of “Semantic Parameter”', in S. Rothstein (ed.), Events in Grammar, pp. 53–103. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  5. Chomsky, N.: 1995, The Minimalist Program. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  6. Davidson, D.: 1967, 'The Logical Form of Action Sentences', in N. Rescher (ed.), The Logic of Decision and Action, pp. 81–95. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  7. Dekker, P.: 1997, 'Cases, Adverbs, Situations and Events', in H. Kamp and B. Partee (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Context Dependence, IMS, University of Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  8. Diesing, M.: 1992, Indefinites. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  9. Doetjes, J.: 1997, Quantifiers and Selection. On the Distribution of Quantifying Expressions in French, Dutch and English. Holland Academic Graphics, The Hague.Google Scholar
  10. Doetjes, J. and M. Honcoop: 1997, 'The Semantics of Event-related Readings: A Case for Pair-Quantification', in A. Szabolcsi (ed.), Ways of Scope Taking, pp. 263–310. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  11. Fiengo, R. and J. Higginbotham: 1981, 'Opacity in NP', Linguistic Analysis 7, 395–421.Google Scholar
  12. von Fintel: 1994, Restrictions on Quantifier Domains, PhD dissertation, University of Massachussetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  13. Frey, W.: 1993, Syntaktische Bedingungen für die semantische Interpretation. Ñber Bindung, implizite Argumente und Skopus. Akademie Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  14. Fukui, N.: 1986, A Theory of Category Projection and Its Applications. PhD dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  15. Gil, D.: 1995, 'Universal Quantifiers and Distributivity', in E. Bach et al. (eds.), Quantification in Natural Languages, pp. 321–362. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  16. Hakulinen, A. and F. Karlsson: 1979, Nykysuomen Lauseoppi. Suomalaisen Kirljallisuuden Seura, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  17. Haspelmath, M.: 1995, 'Diachronic Sources of “All” and “Every”', E. Bach et al. (eds.), Quantification in Natural Languages, pp. 363–382. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  18. Heim, I.: 1982, The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases, PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  19. Heim, I.: 1990, 'E-type Pronouns and Donkey Anaphora', Linguistics and Philosophy 13, 137–177.Google Scholar
  20. Heim, I. and A. Kratzer: 1998, Semantics in Generative Grammar. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  21. de Hoop, H.: 1995, 'On the Characterization of the Weak-Strong Distinction', in E. Bach et al. (eds.), Quantification in Natural Languages, pp. 421–450. Kluwer, Dordrecht/Boston.Google Scholar
  22. Huang, C.-T. J.: 1982, Logical Relations in Chinese and the Theory of Grammar, PhD dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  23. Kamp, H.: 1981, 'A Theory of Truth and Semantic Interpretation', in J. Groenendijk et al. (eds.), Truth, Interpretation and Information, pp. 1-41. Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  24. R. Kayne: 1994, The Antisymmetry of Syntax. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  25. docs/ Console2000pdfs/kaiser.pdfGoogle Scholar
  26. Kiparsky, P.: 1998, 'Partitive Case and Aspect', in M. Butt and W. Geuder (eds.), The Projection of Arguments: Lexical and Compositional Factors. CSLI, Stanford.Google Scholar
  27. Kitagawa, Y.: 1986, 'More on Bracketing Paradoxes', Linguistic Inquiry, 177–183.Google Scholar
  28. Kratzer, A.: 1995, 'Stage-Level & Individual-Level Predicates', G. Carlson and F. Pelletier (eds.), The Generic Book, pp. 125–175. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  29. Kratzer, A.: 1998, 'Scope or Pseudo-Scope? Are There Wide-Scope Indefinites?', in S. Rothstein (ed.), Events in Grammar, pp. 163–196. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  30. Krifka, M.: 1990, 'Four Thousand Ships Passed through the Lock', Linguistics & Philosophy 13, 487–520.Google Scholar
  31. Krifka, M.: 1998, 'Scope Inversion under the Rise-Fall Contour in German', Linguistic Inquiry, 75–109.Google Scholar
  32. Larson, R. K.: 1999, 'Semantics of Adjectival Modification', LOT Winterschool Class Notes, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  33. Larson, R. K., M. den Dikken and P. Ludlow: 1997, 'Intensional Transitive Verbs and Abstract Clausal Complementation', ms., CUNY and Stony Brook University.Google Scholar
  34. Lasersohn, P.: 1995, Plurality, Conjunction and Events, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  35. Leiss, E.: 2000, Artikel und Aspekt. Die grammatischen Muster von Definitheit. deGruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  36. Lewis, D.: 1975, 'Adverbs of Quantification', in E. Keenan (ed.), Formal Semantics of Natural Language, pp. 3–15. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  37. Link, G.: 1997, 'Ten Years of Research on Plurals - Where Do We Stand?', in F. Hamm and E. Hinrichs (eds.), Plurality and Quantification, pp. 19–54. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  38. Link, G.: 1998, '“Je drei Äpfel - Three Apples Each”: Quantification and the German “je”', in G. Link (ed.), Algebraic Semantics in Language and Philosophy, pp. 117–132. CSLI Publications, Stanford.Google Scholar
  39. Matthewson, L.: 1998, Determiner Systems and Quantificational Strategies. Evidence from Salish. Holland Academic Graphics, The Hague.Google Scholar
  40. Matthewson, L.: 2001, 'Quantification and the Nature of Crosslinguistic Variation', Natural Language Semantics 9, 145–189.Google Scholar
  41. Milsark, G.: 1977, 'Toward an Explanation of Certain Peculiarities of the Existential Construction in English', Linguistic Analysis 3, 1–29.Google Scholar
  42. Moltmann, F.: 1992, 'Reciprocals and Same/Different. Towards a Semantic Analysis', Linguistics and Philosophy 15, 411–462.Google Scholar
  43. Moltmann, F.: 1997, Parts and Wholes in Semantics. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  44. Montague, R.: 1973, 'The Proper Treatment of Quantification in Ordinary English', in K. J. J. Hintikka et al. (eds.), Approaches to Natural Language, pp. 221–242. Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  45. Neale, S.: 1990, Descriptions. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  46. Pafel, J.: 1993, 'Scope and Word Order', in J. Jacobs et al. (eds.), Syntax. An International Handbook of Contemporary Research, Vol. 1, pp. 867–880. de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  47. Pafel, J.: 1994, 'Zur syntaktischen Struktur nominaler Quantoren', Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 13, 236–275.Google Scholar
  48. Parsons, T.: 1990, Events in the Semantics of English. A Study of Subatomic Semantics. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  49. Partee, B.: 1989, 'Many Quantifiers', in J. Powers and K. de Jong (eds.), '88. Linguistics Department, Ohio State University, Columbus.Google Scholar
  50. Reinhart, T.: 1997, 'Quantifier Scope: How Labor is Divided between QR and Choice-Functions', Linguistics and Philosophy 20, 335–397.Google Scholar
  51. Rizzi, L.: 1990, Relativized Minimality. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  52. Ross, J. R.: 1967, 'Constraints on Variables in Syntax', PhD dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  53. Russell, B.: 1905, 'On Denoting', Mind 14, 479–493.Google Scholar
  54. Sæbø, K. J.: 1995, 'Quantifiers: Configurations and Interpretations', in F. Hamm, J. Kalb and A. v. Stechow (eds.), The Blaubeuren Papers. Proceedings of the Workshop on Recent Developments in the Theory of Natural Language Semantics, vol. 2, pp. 347–378. Seminar für Sprachwissenschaft, Tübingen.Google Scholar
  55. Schwarzschild, R.: 1992, 'Distinguishing Oriented-Adverbials from Secondary Predicates in the Analysis of Together', talk presented at IATL 1992, Bar-Ilan University.Google Scholar
  56. Sharvy, R.: 1980, 'A More General Theory of Definite Descriptions', The Philosophical Review 89, 607–624.Google Scholar
  57. Sportiche, D.: 1990, 'Movement, Agreement, and Case', ms., UCLA.Google Scholar
  58. Strawson, P. F.: 1950, 'On Referring', Mind 59, 320–344.Google Scholar
  59. Stump, G.: 1981, 'The Interpretation of Frequency Adjectives', Linguistics and Philosophy 5, 221–256.Google Scholar
  60. de Swart, H.: 1991, Adverbs and Quantification: A Generalized Approach, PhD dissertation, University of Groningen.Google Scholar
  61. Travis, L.: 1984, Parameters and Effects of Word Order Variation, PhD dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  62. Zimmermann, M.: 2002, Boys Buying Two Sausages Each. On the Syntax and Semantics of Distance-Distributivity, PhD dissertation, LOT, Utrecht.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malte Zimmermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduiertenkallog "Satzarten: Variation und Interpretation"Johann-Wolfgang – Goethe – UniversitätFrankfurt/MainGermany E-mail

Personalised recommendations