Advertisement

Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 323–326 | Cite as

Comparison of the Sex Ratio with Blastocyst Transfer and Cleavage Stage Transfer

  • Amin A. Milki
  • Sunny H. Jun
  • Mary D. Hinckley
  • Lynn W. Westphal
  • Linda C. Giudice
  • Barry Behr
Article

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the sex ratio in births conceived with blastocyst transfer compared to day 3-ET.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of IVF patients who became pregnant after blastocyst or cleavage stage transfer at Stanford University Hospital and a literature review were performed.

Result(s): In the day 3-ET group, the male-to-female (M/F) ratio was 157/139 (53%/47%) compared to 97/66 (59.5%/40.5%) in the blastocyst group (P = 0.18). Similar trends have been found in individual studies in the literature but reached statistical significance in only one out of six reports reviewed. The combined data from our study and the literature show a male-to-female ratio of 797/594 (57.3%/42.7%) in blastocyst transfer compared to 977/932 (51.2%/48.8%) in day 3-ET (P = 0.001).

Conclusion(s): Although individual studies may lack power to show an altered sex ratio with blastocyst transfer, the combined data presented in this report do suggest that the M/F ratio is higher with blastocyst transfer compared to cleavage stage transfer.

Blastocyst transfer cleavage stage transfer IVF sex ratio 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Avery B, Madison V, Greve T: Sex and development in bovine in-vitro fertilized embryos. Theriogenology 1991;35:953-963Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pegoraro LM, Thuard JM, Delalleau N, Guerin B, Deschamps JC, Marquant Le Guienne B, Humblot P: Comparison of sexratio and cell number of IVM-IVF bovine blastocystsco-cultured with bovine oviduct epithelial cells or with Vero cells. Theriogenology 1998;49:1579-1590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Valdivia RPA, Kunieda T, Azuma S, Toyoda Y: PCR sexing and developmental rate differences in preimplantation mouse embryos fertilized and cultured in vitro. Mol Reprod Dev 1993;35:121-126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cassar G, King WA, King GJ: Influence of sex on early growth of pig conceptuses. J Reprod Fertil 1994;101:317-320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pergament E, Fiddler M, Cho N, Johnson D, Holmgren WJ: Sexual differentiation and preimplantation cell growth. Hum Reprod 1994;9:1730-1732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tarin JJ, Bernabeu R, Baviera A, Bonada M, Cano A: Sexselection may be inadvertently performed in in-vitro fertilization–embryo transfer programmes. Hum Reprod 1995;11:2992-2998Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Menezo YJR, Chouteau J, Torello MJ, Girard A, Veiga A: Birth weight and sex ratio after transfer at the blastocyst stage in humans. Fertil Steril 1999;72:221-224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kausche A, Jones GM, Trounson AO, Figueiredo F, MacLachlan V, Lolatgis N: Sex ratio and birth weights of infants born as a result of blastocyst transfer compared with early cleavage stage embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 2001;76:688-693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilson M, Hartke K, Kiehl M, Rodgers J, Brabec C, Lyles R: Integration of blastocyst transfer for all patients. Fertil Steril 2002;77:693-696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wilson M: Extended embryo culture and blastocyst freezing—The art and the science. In Proceedings of the 14th Annual IVF-ET, Santa Barbara, CA, 2001, pp. 243-276Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meintjes M, Crider-Pirkle SS, Ward DC, Rodriguez JA, Chantilis SJ, Madden JD: Sex ratio and birthweight outcome when considering blastocyst expansion, multiple gestation, and facility. Fertil Steril 2001;76(3):S147Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rodriguez HF, Bustillo M, LaPalme J, Riley E, Eisermann J, Thompson K: Clinical outcomes with transfer of blastocyst or cleavage stage embryos: High order pregnancies, newborn weights and sex ratio. Fertil Steril 2001;76(3):S170Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anderson M, Graham J, Tucker M, Krecko T, Levy MJ, Widra E: Comparison of gender and birth weight following day-three and blastocyst transfers. Fertil Steril 2001;76(3):S179Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mercader A, Gamiz P, de los Santos M, Remohi J, Pellicer A, Simon C: Sex ratio after day 2, day 3 or blastocyst transfer. Fertil Steril 2001;76(3):S261Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ray PF, Conaghan J, Winston RM, Handyside AH: Increased number of cells and metabolic activity in male human preimplantation embryos following in vitro fertilization. J Reprod Fertil 1995;104:165-171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ng E, Claman P, Leveille MC, Tanphaichitr N, Compitak K, Suwajanakorn S, Wells G: Sex ratio of babies is unchanged after transfer of fast-versus slow-cleaving embryos. J Assist Reprod Genet 1995;12:566-568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fanchin R, Righini C, Olivennes F, Lejeune V, Volante M, Frydman R: Female and male human embryo growth rates are similar before the eight-cell stage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;178:45-49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Milki AA, Fisch JD, Behr B: Two-blastocyst transfer has similar pregnancy rates and a decreased multiple gestation rate compared with three-blastocyst transfer. Fertil Steril 1999;72: 225-228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Milki AA, Hinckley MD, Fisch JD, Dasig D, Behr B: Comparison of blastocyst transfer with day 3 embryo transfer in similar patient populations. Fertil Steril 2000;73:126-109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Milki AA, Hinckley MD, Gebhardt J, Dasig D, Westphal LM, Behr B: Accuracy of day 3 criteria for selecting the best embryos. Fertil Steril 2002;77:1191-1195PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amin A. Milki
    • 1
  • Sunny H. Jun
    • 1
  • Mary D. Hinckley
    • 1
  • Lynn W. Westphal
    • 1
  • Linda C. Giudice
  • Barry Behr
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gynecology and ObstetricsStanford University School of MedicineStanford

Personalised recommendations