Solar Physics

, Volume 215, Issue 1, pp 99–109 | Cite as

On the Latitudinal Distribution of Sunspot Groups over a Solar Cycle

  • K.J. Li
  • J.X. Wang
  • L.S. Zhan
  • H.S. Yun
  • H.F. Liang
  • H.J. Zhao
  • X.M. Gu


The latitudinal distribution of sunspot groups over a solar cycle is investigated. Although individual sunspot groups of a solar cycle emerge randomly at any middle and low latitude, the whole latitudinal distribution of sunspot groups of the cycle is not stochastic and, in fact, can be represented by a probability density function of the Γ distribution having maximum probability at about 15.5°. The maximum amplitude of a solar cycle is found to be positively correlated against the number of sunspot groups at high latitude (≥35°) over the cycle, as well as the mean latitude. Also, the relation between the asymmetry of sunspot groups and its latitude is investigated, and a pattern of the N-S asymmetry in solar activity is suggested.


Density Function Probability Density Probability Density Function High Latitude Solar Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Babcock, H. W.: 1961, Astrophys. J. 133, 572.Google Scholar
  2. Carrington, R. C.: 1858, Monthly Notices Royal Astron. Soc. 19, 1.Google Scholar
  3. Hale, G. E. and Nicholson S. B.: 1938, Publ. Carnegie Inst. 498.Google Scholar
  4. Harvey, K. L. and White, O. R.: 1999, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 19759.Google Scholar
  5. Hathaway, D. H., Wilson, R. M., and Reichman, E. J.: 1994, Solar Phys. 151, 177.Google Scholar
  6. Hoyt, D. V. and Schatten, K. H.: 1998a, Solar Phys. 179, 189.Google Scholar
  7. Hoyt, D. V. and Schatten, K. H.: 1998b, Solar Phys. 181, 491.Google Scholar
  8. Kiepenheuer, K. O.: 1953, in G. P. Kuiper (ed.), The Sun, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p. 322.Google Scholar
  9. Li, K. J.: 1999, Astron. Astrophys. 354, 1006.Google Scholar
  10. Li, K. J. and Gu, X. M.: 2000, Astron. Astrophys. 353, 396.Google Scholar
  11. Li, K. J., Yun, H. S., and Gu, X. M.: 2001a, Astrophys. J. 554, L115.Google Scholar
  12. Li, K. J., Yun, H. S., and Gu, X. M.: 2001b, Astron. Astrophys. 368, 285.Google Scholar
  13. Maunder, E. W.: 1913, Monthly Notices Royal Astron. Soc. 74, 112.Google Scholar
  14. Maunder, E. W.: 1922, Monthly Notices Royal Astron. Soc. 82, 534.Google Scholar
  15. Oliver, R. and Ballester, J. L.: 1994, Solar Phys. 152, 481.Google Scholar
  16. Pulkkinen, P. J., Brooke, J., Pelt, J., and Tuominen, I.: 1999, Astron. Astrophys. 341, L43.Google Scholar
  17. Schrijver, C. J. and Zwaan, C.: 2000, Solar and Stellar Magnetic Activity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 139.Google Scholar
  18. Schwabe, H.: 1843, Astron. Nachr. 21, 233.Google Scholar
  19. Spencer, J. H.: 1955, Sunspot and Geomagnetic-storm Data Derived from Greenwich Observations 1874-1954, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  20. Vizoso, G. and Ballester, J. L.: 1990, Astron. Astrophys. 229, 540.Google Scholar
  21. Waldmeier, M.: 1935, Astron. Mott. Zürich 14, 105.Google Scholar
  22. Wilson, R. M.: 1987, Solar Phys. 111, 279.Google Scholar
  23. Wilson, R. M., Hathaway, D. H., and Reichmann, E.: 1996, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19967.Google Scholar
  24. Wilson, R. M., Hathaway, D. H., and Reichmann, E.: 1998, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17411.Google Scholar
  25. Wolf, R.: 1859, Vierteljahrschr. Naturforsch. Gesellsch., Zürich, 2.Google Scholar
  26. Yallop, B. D. and Hohenkerk, C. Y.: 1980, Solar Phys. 68, 303.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • K.J. Li
    • 1
  • J.X. Wang
    • 2
  • L.S. Zhan
    • 1
  • H.S. Yun
    • 3
  • H.F. Liang
    • 1
  • H.J. Zhao
    • 1
  • X.M. Gu
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, CASKunmingChina
  2. 2.National Astronomical Observatories, CASChina
  3. 3.Astronomy ProgramSEES, Seoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  4. 4.United Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, CASChina

Personalised recommendations