Input/output logics are abstract structures designed to represent conditional obligations and goals. In this paper we use them to study conditional permission. This perspective provides a clear separation of the familiar notion of negative permission from the more elusive one of positive permission. Moreover, it reveals that there are at least two kinds of positive permission. Although indistinguishable in the unconditional case, they are quite different in conditional contexts. One of them, which we call static positive permission, guides the citizen and law enforcement authorities in the assessment of specific actions under current norms, and it behaves like a weakened obligation. Another, which we call dynamic positive permission, guides the legislator. It describes the limits on the prohibitions that may be introduced into a code, and under suitable conditions behaves like a strengthened negative permission.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Alchourrón, C. E. (1993): Philosophical foundations of deontic logic and the logic of defeasible conditionals, in J. J. Meyer and R. J. Wieringa (eds), Deontic Logic in Computer Science: Normative System Specification, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
- Alchourrón, C. E. and Bulygin, E. (1984): Permission and permissive norms, in W. Krawietz et al. (eds), Theorie der Normen, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin.Google Scholar
- Makinson, D. (1999): On a fundamental problem of deontic logic, in P. McNamara and H. Prakken (eds), Norms, Logics and Information Systems. New Studies in Deontic Logic and Computer Science, Frontiers Artif. Intell. Appl. 49, IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp. 29–53.Google Scholar
- Makinson, D. and van der Torre, L. (2000): Input/output logics, J. Philos. Logic 29, 383–408.Google Scholar
- Makinson, D. and van der Torre, L. (2001): Constraints for input/output logics, J. Philos. Logic 30, 155–185.Google Scholar
- Makinson, D. and van der Torre, L. (2003): What is input/output logic?, in Foundations of the Formal Sciences II: Applications of Mathematical Logic in Philosophy and Linguistics, Trends in Logic Series 17, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 163–174.Google Scholar
- Von Wright, G. (1959): On the logic of negation, Soc. Scient. Fennica Com. Physico-Math. XXII, 4.Google Scholar
- Von Wright, G. (1963): Norm and Action, Routledge, London.Google Scholar