Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 485–500 | Cite as

Causes of the Unusual Coastal Flooding Generated by Typhoon Winnie on the West Coast of Korea

  • I.-J. Moon
  • I. S. Oh
  • T. Murty
  • Y.-H. Youn
Article

Abstract

On 19 August 1997 Typhoon Winnie brought unusually strong and extensive coastal flooding from storm surges to the west coast of Korea, which was farenough from the typhoon's center to lack significant local wind and pressure forcing.Sea levels at some tidal stations broke 36-year records and resulted in property damages of $18,000,000. This study investigated the causes of the unusual high sea levels by using an Astronomical-Meteorological Index (AMI) and a coupled ocean wave-circulation model developed by the present authors. The AMI analysis and the numerical simulation of the surge event showed that the major cause of the high sea levels was not the standard inverse barometric effect supplemented by water piling up along the coast by the wind field of the typhoon as is usual for a typical storm surge, but rather an enhanced tidal forcing from the perigean spring tide and water transported into the Yellow Sea by the currents generated by the typhoon. The numerical results also indicated that the transported water accounted for about 50% of the increased sea levels. Another cause for the coastal flooding was the resonance coupling of the Yellow Sea (with a natural normal mode period of 37.8 h) and the predominant period of the surge (36.5 h).

coastal flooding high sea levels astronomical-meteorological index coupled ocean wave-circulation model tidal forcing transported water resonance coupling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: 1987, A Description of a Three‐Dimensional Coastal Ocean Circulation Model, Three‐dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, Vol. 4, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  2. Choi, B. H.: 1980, A tidal model of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI) Report 80‐02, 72 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Flather, R. A.: 1976, A tidal model of the northwest European continental shelf, Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liege, Ser. 6 10, 141–164.Google Scholar
  4. Janssen, P. A. E. M.: 1991, Quasi‐linear theory of wind‐wave generation applied to wave forecasting, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 21, 1631–1642.Google Scholar
  5. Mastenbroek, C., Burgers, G., and Janssen, P. A. E. M.: 1993, The dynamical coupling of a wave model and a storm surge model through the atmospheric boundary layer, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 23, 856–1866.Google Scholar
  6. Mellor, G. L. and Yamada, T.: 1982, Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical luid problems, Rev. Geophys., Space Phys. 20, 851–875.Google Scholar
  7. Moon, I.‐J.: 2000, Development of a Coupled Ocean Wave‐Circulation Model and its Applications to Numerical Experiments for Wind Waves, Storm Surges and Ocean Circulation of the Yellow and East China Seas, Ph.D. thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul.Google Scholar
  8. Moon, I.‐J., Oh, I. S., and Youn, Y.‐H.: 2000, A numerical study on the real‐time sea level prediction along the western coast of Korea, J. Korean Meteorol. Soc. 36(2), 203–218.Google Scholar
  9. Oh, I. S., Lee, J. K., and An, H. S.: 1993, A study of storm surges of the seas in north eastern Asia. II. Numerical simulations, J. Korean Earth Science Soc. 14, 467–481.Google Scholar
  10. Tolman, H. L.: 1990, The influence of unsteady, depths and currents of tides on wind‐wave propagation in shelf seas, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 20, 1166–1174.Google Scholar
  11. Tolman, H. L.: 1991, A third generation model for wind waves on slowly varying, unsteady, and inhomogeneous depth and currents, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 21, 782–797.Google Scholar
  12. Tolman, H. L.: 1992, User Manual for WAVEWATCH‐II, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA.Google Scholar
  13. Wood, J. F.: 1978, The Strategic Role of Perigean Spring Tides in Nautical History and North American Coastal Flooding, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA.Google Scholar
  14. Zhang, M. Y. and Li, Y. S.: 1996, The synchronous coupling of a third‐generation wave model and a two‐dimensional storm surge model, Ocean Engng. 6, 533–543.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • I.-J. Moon
    • 1
  • I. S. Oh
    • 2
  • T. Murty
    • 3
  • Y.-H. Youn
    • 4
  1. 1.Graduate School of OceanographyUniversity of Rhode IslandNarragansettU.S.A.
  2. 2.Department of Oceanography and Research Institute of OceanographySeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.W. F. Baird & AssociatesCoastal Engineers Ltd.Canada
  4. 4.Korea Meteorological AdministrationMeteorological Research InstituteSeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations