# Attitude Toward Self, Social Factors, and Achievement in Mathematics: A Meta-Analytic Review

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## Abstract

*This meta-analysis integrated 143 primary studies on the relationship of attitude toward self and social factors with achievement in mathematics. Attitude was decomposed into self-concept about mathematics, perception of family support, and perception of mathematics as a male domain. Major findings included: (a) self-concept, family support, and mathematics as a male domain were all related to achievement; (b) the three relationships did not show significant gender differences; (c) the three relationships consistently decreased from the junior high grades to the senior high grades; (d) the relationship between self-concept and achievement varied as a function of ethnicity, whereas the relationship between family support and achievement was consistent across ethnic background; (e) the three relationships all varied across sample selection; (f) the relationship between self-concept and achievement varied with sample size, whereas the relationships of family support and mathematics as a male domain with achievement were sample-size invariant; (g) the relationship between self-concept and achievement increased over time, whereas the relationships of family support and mathematics as a male domain with achievement remained almost unchanged over time; and (h) there were no statistically significant interaction effects among gender, grade, and ethnicity for any of the three relationships.*

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