American Journal of Community Psychology

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 325–343 | Cite as

Mood Management Mail Intervention Increases Abstinence Rates for Spanish-Speaking Latino Smokers

  • Ricardo F. Muñoz
  • Barbara VanOss Marín
  • Samuel F. Posner
  • Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable


A self-administered mood management intervention program for smoking cessation provided through the mail to Spanish-speaking Latinos resulted in a 23% abstinence rate at 3 months compared to an 11% abstinence rate for a smoking cessation guide alone. Participants (N = 136) were randomly assigned to receive either the cessation guide (the Guía), or the Guía plus a mood management intervention (Tomando Control de su Vida) presented in writing and in audiotape format. At 3 months after random assignment, 16 out of 71 of those assigned to the Guía-plus-mood management condition reported being abstinent (not smoking for at least 7 days) compared to 7 out of 65 in the Guía-only condition (z = 1.8; p = .04, one-tailed). Moreover, those with a history of major depressive episodes, but not currently depressed, reported an even higher abstinence rate in the Guía-plus-mood management condition, compared to the Guía-only condition (31 vs. 11%, z = 1.8, p = .04, one-tailed). We conclude that the mood management mail intervention substantially increases abstinence rates, especially for those with a history of major depressive episodes.

smoking cessation mood management mail intervention Spanish-speaking depression 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (3rd ed., Rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Anashensel, C. S., Clark, V. A., & Frerichs, R. R. (1983). Race, ethnicity, and depression: A confirmatory analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 385–398.Google Scholar
  3. Anda, R. F., Williamson, D. F., Escobedo, L. G., Mast, E. E., Giovino, G. A., & Remington, P. L. (1990). Depression and the dynamics of smoking: A national perspective. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264, 1541–1545.Google Scholar
  4. Farkas, A. J., Pierce, J. P., Gilpin, E. A., Zhu, S.-H., Rosbrook, B., Berry, C., & Kaplan, R. M. (1996). Is stage-of-change a useful measure of the likelihood of smoking cessation? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 79–86.Google Scholar
  5. Félix-Ortiz, M., Muñoz, R. F., & Newcomb, M. D. (1994). The role of emotional distress in drug use among Latino adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 3, 1–22.Google Scholar
  6. Fiore, M. C., Smith, S. S., Jorenby, D. E., & Baker, T. B. (1994). The effectiveness of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation. A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 271, 1940–1947.Google Scholar
  7. Flay, B. R. (1987). Mass media and smoking cessation: A critical review. American Journal of Public Health, 77, 153–160.Google Scholar
  8. Glassman, A. H., Stetner, F., Walsh, B. T., Raizman, P. S., Fleiss, J. L., Cooper, T. B. & Covey, L. S. (1988). Heavy smokers, smoking cessation and clonidine: Results of a double-blind, randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 259, 2863–2866.Google Scholar
  9. Hall, S. M., Muñoz, R. F., & Reus, V. I. (1994). Cognitive-behavioral intervention increases abstinence rates for depressive-history smokers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 141–146.Google Scholar
  10. Hall, S. M., Muñoz, R. F., Reus, V. I., & Sees, K. L. (1993). Nicotine, negative affect, and depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 761–767.Google Scholar
  11. Hulley, S. B., & Cummings, S. R. (Eds.). (1988). Designing clinical research: An epidemiologic approach. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  12. Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Shanyang, Z., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H. U., & Kendler, K. S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19.Google Scholar
  13. Lando, H. A., McGovern, P. G., Barrios, F. X., & Etringer, B. D. (1990). Comparative evaluation of American Cancer Society and American Lung Association smoking cessation clinics. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 554–559.Google Scholar
  14. Lee, D. J., & Markides, K. S. (1991). Health behaviors, risk factors, and health indicators associated with cigarette use in Mexican-Americans: Results from the Hispanic HANES. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 859–864.Google Scholar
  15. Lewinsohn, P. M., Muñoz, R. F., Youngren, M. A., & Zeiss, A. M. (1986). Control your depression (Rev. ed.). New York: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  16. McGinnis, J. M., & Foege, W. H. (1993). Actual causes of death in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 2207–2212.Google Scholar
  17. Muñoz, R. F., & Ying, Y. (1993). The prevention of depression: Research and practice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  18. National Cancer Institute. (1988). Guía para dejar de fumar: Por su salud y su familia (NIH Publication No. 88-3001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  19. National Center for Health Statistics. (1985). Plan and operation of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982–1984 (Vital and Health Statistics, Series 1, No. 19; DHHS Publication No. PHS 85-1321). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  20. Pérez-Stable, E., Sabogal, F., Marín, G., Marín, B., & Otero-Sabogal, R. (1991). Evaluation of “Guía Para Dejar de Fumar,” a self-help guide in Spanish to quit smoking. Public Health Reports, 106, 564–570.Google Scholar
  21. Pérez-Stable, E. J., Marín, G., Marín, B., & Katz, M. H. (1990). Depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among Latinos in San Francisco. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 1500–1502.Google Scholar
  22. Perz, C. A., DiClemente, C. C., & Carbonari, J. P. (1996). Doing the right thing at the right time? The interaction of stages and processes of change in successful smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 15, 462–468.Google Scholar
  23. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 390–395.Google Scholar
  24. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1992). Stages of change in the modification of problem behaviors. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification (pp. 184–214). Sycamore, IL: Sycamore.Google Scholar
  25. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.Google Scholar
  26. Roberts, R. E. (1980). Reliability of the CES-D in different ethnic contexts. Psychiatry Research, 2, 125–134.Google Scholar
  27. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Croughan, J., & Ratcliff, K. S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health—Giagnostic Interview Schedule: Its History, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 381–389.Google Scholar
  28. Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Weissman, M. M., Orvaschel, J., Gruneberg, E., & Burke, I. D. (1984). Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 949–958.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricardo F. Muñoz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Barbara VanOss Marín
    • 1
  • Samuel F. Posner
    • 1
  • Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaSan Francisco
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatrySan Francisco General HospitalSan Francisco

Personalised recommendations