, Volume 132, Issue 2, pp 185–190 | Cite as

Molecular cytogenetics in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) and identification of sex chromosomes by DAPI-banding

  • G.I. Karlov
  • T.V. Danilova
  • C. Horlemann
  • G. Weber


Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) waskaryotyped by Fluorescence In SituHybridization (FISH) with probes 18S-25Sand 5S rDNA as well as DAPI banding andmeasurements of lengths of chromosome.Irrespective of the sex of the plants theseprobes revealed one signal near thetelomere of chromosome 6 and two signalseach on chromosomes 2 and 5.The shortest chromosome in a metaphaseplate of a male plant was designated to bechromosome Y. It displayed neither signalswith FISH nor DAPI bands. A middle sizedmetacentric chromosome with no telomericbut with an interstitial DAPI band on theshort arm was designated as X. Allautosomes displayed telomeric DAPI-positivebands. For the first time all mitotic hopchromosomes including the sex chromosomeswere identified by methods of molecularcytogenetics.

fluorescence in situ hybridization hop Humulus lupulus (L.) karyotype sex chromosomes rDNA 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bartlett, M.S., 1937. Properties of sufficiency and statistical tests. Proc Roy Soc A 160: 268-282.Google Scholar
  2. Campell, B.R., Y. Soung, T.E. Posch, C.A. Cullis & C.D. Town, 1992. Sequence and organization of 5S ribosomal RNA-encoding genes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene 112: 225-228.Google Scholar
  3. Fisher, R.A., 1925. Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, UK.Google Scholar
  4. Flavell R.B., 1986. The structure and control of expression of ribosomal RNA genes. Oxf Surv PlantMol Cell Biol 3: 252-274.Google Scholar
  5. Fleischer, R., C. Horlemann, C. Kling & G. Weber, 2003. AFLP fingerprinting in hop: analysis of the genetic variability of the Tettnang variety. Genet Res Crop Evol, in press.Google Scholar
  6. Galasso, I., T. Schmidt and D. Pignone, 2001. Identification of Lens culinaris ssp culinaris chromosomes by physical mapping of repetitive DNA sequences. Chromosome Res 9: 199-209.Google Scholar
  7. Gerlach, W.L., J.R. Bedbrook, 1979. Cloning and characterization of ribosomal RNA genes from wheat and barley. Nucleic Acids Res 7: 1869-1885.Google Scholar
  8. Haunold, A., 1991. Cytology and cytogenetics of Hops. In: T. Tsuchiya and P.K. Gupta (Eds.), Chromosome Engineering in Plants: Genetics, Breeding, Evolution, pp. 251-563. Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  9. ISCN, 1978. An international system for human cytogenetic nomenclature. Cytogenet Cell Genet 21: 318-320.Google Scholar
  10. Jacobsen, P., 1957. The sex chromosomes in Humulus. Hereditas 43: 357-370.Google Scholar
  11. Jewell, D.C. & I. Islam-Faridi, 1994. A technique for somatic chromosome preparation and C-banding of maize. In: M. Freeling & V. Walbot (Eds.), The Maize Handbook, pp. 484-493. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Kamstra, A.S., A.G.J. Kuipers, J.M. de Jeu, M.S. Ramanna, E. Jacobsen, 1997. Physical localisation of repetitive DNA sequences in Alstroemeria: karyotyping of two species with species-specific and ribosomal DNA. Genome 40: 652-658.Google Scholar
  13. Khrustaleva, L.I. & C. Kik, 2001. Localization of single-copy TDNA insertion in transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by using ultra-sensitive FISH with tyramide signal amplification. Plant J 25: 699-707.Google Scholar
  14. Kohlman, H. & A. Kastner, 1976. Der Hopfen. Hopfenverlag Wolnzach.Google Scholar
  15. Leitch, I.J., A.R. Leitch & J.S. Heslop-Harrison, 1991. Physical mapping of plant DNA sequences by simultaneous in situ hybridization of two differently labelled fluorescent probes. Genome 34: 329-333.Google Scholar
  16. Leitch, I.J. & J.S. Heslop-Harrison, 1992. Physical mapping of the 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA genes in barley by in situ hybridization. Genome 35: 1013-1018.Google Scholar
  17. Levan, A., K Fredga & A. Sandberg, 1964. Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Hereditas 52: 201-220.Google Scholar
  18. Linares, C., J. Gonzales, E. Ferrer & A. Fomonaya, 1996. The use of double fluorescence in situ hybridization to physically map the positions of 5S rDNA genes in relation to the chromosomal location of 18S-5/8S-26S rDNA and a C genome specific DNA sequence in the genus Avena. Genome 39: 535-542.Google Scholar
  19. Lubaretz, O., J. Fuchs, R. Ahne, A. Maister & I. Schubert, 1996. Karyotyping of three Pinaceae species via fluorescent in situ hybridization and computer-aided chromosome analysis. Theor Appl Genet 92: 411-416.Google Scholar
  20. Meinkoth, J. & G. Wahl, 1984. Hybridization of nucleic acids immobilised on solid supports. Ann Biochem 138: 267-284.Google Scholar
  21. Mukai, Y., T.R. Endo & B.S. Gill, 1990. Physical mapping of the 5S rRNA multigene family in common wheat. J Hered 81: 290-295.Google Scholar
  22. Mukai, Y., T.R. Endo & B.S. Gill, 1991. Physical mapping of the 18S.25S rRNA multigene family in common wheat: identification of a new locus. Chromosoma 100: 71-78.Google Scholar
  23. Neve, R.A., 1961. Sex determination in the cultivated hop Humulus lupulus. PhD thesis. Univ. of London.Google Scholar
  24. Neve, R.A., 1991. Hops. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  25. Ono, T., 1955. Studies in hop. I. Chromosomes of common hop and its relatives. Bull Brew Sci 2: 1-65.Google Scholar
  26. Parker, J.S. & M.S. Clark, 1991. Dosage sex-chromosome systems in plants. Plant Science 80: 79-92.Google Scholar
  27. Pijnacker, L.P. & M.A. Ferwerda, 1984. Giemsa C-banding of potato chromosomes. Can J Genet Cytol 26: 415-419.Google Scholar
  28. Pillay, M. & S.T. Kenny, 1996. Structure and inheritance of ribosomal DNA variants in cultivated and wild hop, Humulus lupulus L. Theor Appl Genet 93: 333-340.Google Scholar
  29. Reeves, A. and J. Tear, 2000. MicroMeasure for Windows, version 3.3. Free program distributed by the authors over the Internet from Depts/ Biology/MicroMeasure.Google Scholar
  30. Sadder, M.T. & G. Weber, 2001. Karyotype of maize (Zea mays L.) mitotic metaphase chromosomes as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with cytogenetic DNA markers. Plant Mol Biol Reporter 19: 117-123.Google Scholar
  31. Schwarzacher, T., A.R. Leitch & J.S. Heslop-Harrison, 1994. DNA-DNA in situ hybridization methods for light microscopy. In: N. Harris and K.J. Oparka (Eds.), Plant Cell Biology: A Practical Approach, pp. 127-155. IRL Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  32. Seefelder, S., H. Ehrmaier, G. Schweizer & E. Seigner, 2000. Male and female genetic linkage map of hops, Humulus lupulus. Plant Breed 119: 249-255.Google Scholar
  33. Shephard, H.L., J.S. Parker, P. Darby & C.C. Ainsworth, 2000. Sexual development and sex chromosomes in hop. New Pythol 148: 397-411.Google Scholar
  34. Wing, O., 1929. On the nature of sex chromosomes in Humulus. Hereditas 12: 53-63.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • G.I. Karlov
    • 1
  • T.V. Danilova
    • 1
  • C. Horlemann
    • 2
  • G. Weber
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyTimiryazev Agricultural AcademyMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Plant Breeding, Seed Science and Population GeneticsUniversity of Hohenheim, Department of Plant Breeding and BiotechnologyStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations