Advertisement

Annals of Clinical Psychiatry

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 121–130 | Cite as

An Evaluation of Anabolic–Androgenic Steroid Abusers Over a Period of 1 Year: Seven Case Studies

  • Paul J. FudalaEmail author
  • Robert M. Weinrieb
  • Joseph S. Calarco
  • Kyle M. Kampman
  • Chris Boardman
Case Law Studies
  • 56 Downloads

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to evaluate anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) abusing adults every 2 weeks with a comprehensive behavioral and clinical assessment battery. The study was conducted at the University of Pennsylvania Treatment Research Center; 10 subjects were enrolled and 7 completed the protocol. AASs and other drugs were obtained and self-administered by subjects through their usual mechanisms. On-study evaluations included medical, behavioral, and drug-use assessments. While a high incidence of mood disorders and substance abuse was found, few clinically relevant changes in physiological parameters or laboratory measures were noted throughout the study. Changes as measured by various behavioral rating scales were observed across time; however, these changes were not clearly related to periods of reported AAS use. Additional factors such as life events, subjects' other drug use, and the extended duration of activity of some of the AAS preparations probably influenced the results. Differences in subject-reported adverse effects were seen with respect to periods of AAS use and nonuse. Cycles of AAS nonuse were associated with a greater percentage of subject-reported increased testicular size, appetite, frequency of sexual activity, and libido. The results provide the first long-term, prospective evaluation of the effects of AASs, when these drugs are administered in a naturalistic pattern of abuse.

anabolic androgenic steroid abuse behavior morbidity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kanayama G, Gruber AJ, Pope HG, Jr, Borowiecki JJ, Hudson JI: Over-the-counter drug use in gymnasiums: An under recognized substance abuse problem? Psychother Psychosom 2001; 70:137-140Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wagner JC: Enhancement of athletic performance with drugs. An overview. Sports Med 1991; 12:250-265Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson MD: Anabolic steroid use in adolescent athletes. Pediatr Clin North Am 1990; 37:1111-1123Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brower KJ, Blow FC, Hill EM: Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use in men. J Psychiatr Res 1994; 28:369-380Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dickerman RD, McConathy WJ, Schaller F, Zachariah NY: Cardiovascular complications and anabolic steroids. Eur Heart J 1996; 17:1912Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rockhold RW: Cardiovascular toxicity of anabolic steroids. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1993; 33:497-520Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Parssinen M, Seppala T: Steroid use and long-term health risks in former athletes. Sports Med 2002; 32:83-94Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sullivan ML, Martinez CM, Gennis P, Gallagher EJ: The cardiac toxicity of anabolic steroids. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1998; 41:1-15Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wu FC: Endocrine aspects of anabolic steroids. Clin Chem 1997; 43:1289-1292Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Narducci WA, Wagner JC, Hendrickson TP, Jeffrey TP: Anabolic steroids—A review of the clinical toxicology and diagnostic screening. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1990; 28:287-310Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bjorkqvist K, Nygren T, Bjorklund A, Bjorkqvist S: Testosterone intake and aggressiveness. Aggress Behav 1994; 20:17-26Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brower KJ, Eliopulos GA, Blow FC, Catlin DH, Beresford TP: Evidence for physical and psychological dependence on anabolic androgenic steroids in eight weight lifters. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147:510-512Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Choi PYL, Parrott AC, Cowan D: High-dose anabolic steroids in strength athletes: Effects upon hostility and aggression. Hum Psychopharmacol 1990; 5:349-356Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kouri EM, Lukas SE, Pope HG, Jr, Oliva PS: Increase aggressive responding in male volunteers following the administration of gradually increasing doses of testosterone cypionate. Drug Alcohol Depend 1995; 40:39-73Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Malone DA, Jr, Dimeff R, Lombardo JA, Sample BRH: Psychiatric effects and psychoactive substance use in anabolic-androgenic steroid users. Clin J Sports Med 1995; 5:25-31Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moss HB, Panzak GL, Tarter RE: Personality, mood, and psychiatric symptoms. Am J Addict 1992; 1:315-324Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Parrott A, Choi PYL, Davies M: Anabolic steroid use by amateur athletes: Effects upon psychological mood states. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1994; 34:292-298Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pope HG, Jr, Katz DL: Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51:375-382Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Su TP, Pagliaro M, Schmidt PJ, Pikar D, Wolkowitz O, Rubinow DR: Neuropsychiatric effects of anabolic steroids in male normal volunteers. JAMA 1993; 269:2760-2764Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yesalis CE, Herrick RT, Buckley WE, Friedl KE, Brannon D, Wright JE: Self-reported use of anabolic-androgenic steroids by elite power lifters. Phys Sports Med 1988; 16:91-100Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gruber AJ, Pope HG, Jr: Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in women. Psychother Psychosom 2000; 69:19-26Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brower KJ: Withdrawal from anabolic steroids. Curr Ther Endocrinol Metab 1997; 6:338-343Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cooper CJ, Noakes TD, Dunne T, Lambert MI, Rochford K: A high prevalence of abnormal personality traits in chronic users of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Br J Sports Med 1996; 30:246-250Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parssinen M, Kujala U, Vartiainen E, Sarna S, Seppala T: Increased premature mortality of competitive powerlifters suspected to have used anabolic agents. Int J Sports Med 2000; 21:225-227Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thiblin I, Runeson B, Rajs J: Anabolic androgenic steroids and suicide. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1999; 11:223-231Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Giorgi A, Weatherby RP, Morphy PW: Muscular strength, body composition, and health responses to the use of testosterone enanthate: A double blind study. J Sci Med Sport 1999; 2:341-355Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pope HG, Jr, Kouri EM, Hudson JI: Effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on mood and aggression in normal men: A randomized controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57:133-140Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    O'Connor DB, Archer J, Hair WM, Wu FC: Exogenous testosterone, aggression, and mood in eugonadal and hypogonadal men. Physiol Behav 2002; 75:557-566Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yates WR, Perry PJ, MacIndoe J, Holman T, Ellingrod V: Psychosexual effects of three doses of testosterone cycling in normal men. Biol Psychiatry 1999; 45:254-260Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Gibbon M, First MB: The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R. I. History, rationale and description. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49:624-629Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF: Profile of Mood States Manual. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service; 1981Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Beck A, Steer R, Garbin M: Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory. Clin Psychol Rev 1988; 8:77-100Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Buss AH, Durkee A: An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility. J Consult Psychol 1957; 21:343-349Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kammerer RC, Merdink JL, Jagels M, Catlin DH, Hui KK: Testing for fluoxymesterone (Halotestin) administration to man: Identification of urinary metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Steroid Biochem 1990; 36:659-666Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul J. Fudala
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Robert M. Weinrieb
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joseph S. Calarco
    • 1
  • Kyle M. Kampman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chris Boardman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphia
  2. 2.Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterPhiladelphia
  3. 3.Children's Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia

Personalised recommendations