Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 89–115

Psychosocial Correlates of Affective Distress: Latent-Variable Models of Male and Female Adolescents in a Community Sample

  • Lawrence M. Scheier
  • Gilbert J. Botvin
Article

Abstract

Latent-variable confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the interrelationships of depressive and anxious symptomatology and 13 measures of psychosocial functioning in a community-based sample of adolescents participating in a school-based drug abuse prevention intervention. Measures of psychosocial functioning included: cognitive self-efficacy, self-management, self-reinforcement, decision-making and problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, social anxiety, behavioral style, risk taking, conventionality, somatic complaints, perceived tangible, and adult support. Simultaneous group comparison and nested hierarchical tests were used to statistically contrast parameters obtained from male and female models. Overall, the hypothetical constructs were statistically reliable and models were psychometrically sound. Partial factorial invariance was obtained, however, the patterns of covariation between distress and psychosocial functioning were dissimilar for male and female youth. Differences clustered around affective distress, cognitive skills, and perceived functional support. More socially anxious females perceived less social support, whereas support and anxiety were positively related among male students. Male youth with high levels of conventional behavior were also socially anxious, whereas for females this relationship was absent and nonsignificant. For both male and female students, distress was moderately and inversely related to cognitive efficacy and personal competence skills. Distressed youth were also less conventional (behavioral control) and less diligent, and were characterized by greater sensation-seeking, poorer competence, and perceived less social support, and were more socially anxious with less interpersonal skills. Findings are discussed in terms of potential contributors to gender differences in distress and psychosocial functioning and their implications for the understanding of adolescent mental health.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Angold, A. (1988). Childhood and adolescent depression II: Research in clinical populations. Br. J. Psychiat. 153: 476–492.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol. Rev. 84: 191–215.Google Scholar
  3. Bentler, P. M. (1989). EQS Structured Equations Program Manual. BMDP Statistical Software, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  4. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychol. Bull. 107: 238–246.Google Scholar
  5. Bentler, P. M., and Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychol. Bull. 88: 588–606.Google Scholar
  6. Botvin, G. J. (1993). Reducing drug abuse and AIDS risk: Final Report. National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  7. Brady, U., and Kendall, P. C. (1992). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Psychol. Bull. 111: 244–255.Google Scholar
  8. Brooks-Gunn, J., and Petersen, A. C. (eds.). (1983). Girls at puberty: Biological and Psychosocial perspectives. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Brooks-Gunn, J., and Warren, M. P. (1989). Biological and social contributions to negative affect in young adolescent girls. Child Develop. 60: 40–55.Google Scholar
  10. Bugen, L. A. and Hawkins, R. C. (1981, August). The Coping Assessment Battery: Theoretical and empirical foundations. Papers presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  11. Cantwell, D. P., and Baker, L. (1991). Manifestations of depressive affect in adolescence. J Youth Adolesc. 20: 121–132.Google Scholar
  12. Dixon, W. J. (1992). BMDP Statistical Software Manual (Vol. 2, Release 7). University of California Press, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  13. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. W. W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Hodder & Stoughton, London.Google Scholar
  15. Feldman, L. A. (1993). Distinguishing depression and anxiety in self-report: Evidence from confirmatory factor analysis on nonclinical and clinical samples. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 61: 631–638.Google Scholar
  16. Fleming, J., Offord, D. R., and Boyle, M. H. (1989). Prevalence of childhood and adolescent depression in the community: Ontario Child Health Study. Br. J. Psychiat. 155: 647–654.Google Scholar
  17. Heiby, E. M. (1983). Assessment of frequency of self-reinforcement. J. Personal. Social Psychol. 44: 304–1307.Google Scholar
  18. Heppner, P. P., and Petersen, C. H. (1982). The development and implications of a personal problem-solving inventory. J. Counsel. Psychol. 29: 66–75.Google Scholar
  19. Jessor, R., and Jessor, S. L. (1977). Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Josselson, R. (1980). Ego development in adolescence. In Adelson, J. (ed.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Kandel, D. B. (1988). Substance use, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation in adolescence and young adulthood. Adv. Adol. Mental Health 3: 127–143.Google Scholar
  22. Kandel, D. B., and Davies, M. (1982). Epidemiology of depressive mood in adolescents. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 39: 1205–1212.Google Scholar
  23. Kandel, D. B., and Davies, M. (1986). Adult sequelae of adolescent depressive symptoms. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 43: 255–262.Google Scholar
  24. Kashani, J. H., Sherman, D. D., Parker, D. R., and Reid, J. C. (1990). Utility of the Beck Depression Inventory with clinic-referred adolescents. J. Am. Acad. Child Adoles. Psychol. 29: 278–282.Google Scholar
  25. Kazdin, A. E. (1993). Adolescent mental health. Am. Psychol. 48: 127–141.Google Scholar
  26. Keating, D. P. (1990). Adolescent thinking. In Feldman, S. S., and Elliott, G. R. (eds.), At the Threshold: The Developing Adolescent. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  27. Kendall, P. C., and Watson, D. (1989). Anxiety and Depression: Distinctive and Overlapping Features. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  28. Kendall, P. C., and Wilcox, L. E. (1979). Self-control in children: Development of a rating scale. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 47: 1020–1029.Google Scholar
  29. Kovacs, M. (1989). Affective disorders in children and adolescents. Am. Psychol. 44: 209–215.Google Scholar
  30. Kovacs, M. (1980). Rating scales to assess depression in school-age children. Acta Paedopsychiat. 46: 305–315.Google Scholar
  31. Labouvie, E. W. (1986). The coping function of adolescent alcohol and drug use. In Silbereisen, R. K., and Eyferth, K., and Rudinger, G. (eds.), Development as Action in Context. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  32. Langner, T. S. (1962). A twenty-two item screening score of psychiatric symptoms indicating impairment. J. Health Human Behav. 3: 269–276.Google Scholar
  33. Larson, R., and Ham, M. (1993). Stress and “Storm and Stress” in early adolescence: The relationship of negative events with dysphoric affect. Develop. Psychol. 29: 130–140.Google Scholar
  34. Leadbeater, B. J., Blatt, S. J., and Quinlin, D. M. (1995). Gender-linked vulnerabilities to depressive symptoms, stress, and problem behaviors in adolescents. J. Res. Adolesc. 5: 1–29.Google Scholar
  35. Lerner, R. M., and Roch, T. T. (eds.). (1987). Biological-Psychosocial Interactions in Early Adolescence: A Life-Span Perspective. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  36. Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., and Andrews, J. A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III-R disorders in high school students. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 102: 133–144.Google Scholar
  37. Lewinsohn, P. M., Rhode, P., Seeley, J. R., and Hops, H. (1991). Comorbidity of unipolar depression: I. Major depression with dysthymia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 100: 205–213.Google Scholar
  38. MacCallum, R. C., Roznowski, M., and Necowitz, L. B. (1992). Model modifications in covariance structure analysis: The problem of capitalization on chance. Psychol. Bull. 111: 490–504.Google Scholar
  39. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1990). Sex Differences in Depression. Stanford University Pres, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  40. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., and Girgus, J. S. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychol. Bull. 115: 424–443.Google Scholar
  41. Offer, D. (1969). The Psychological World of the Teenager. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Offer, D., and Offer, J. B. (1975). From Teenage to Young Manhood: A Psychological Study. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Offer, D., and Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (1992). Debunking the myths of adolescence: findings from recent research. J. Am. Acad. Child. Adol. Psychol. 31: 1003–1014.Google Scholar
  44. Offer, D., Ostrov, E., and Howard, K. I. (1984). Patterns of Adolescent Self-Image. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  45. Ollendick, T. H., and Yule, W. (1990). Depression in British and American children and its relation to anxiety and fear. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 58: 126–129.Google Scholar
  46. Paulhus, D. (1983). Sphere-specific measures of perceived control. J. Personal. Social Psychol. 44: 1253–1265.Google Scholar
  47. Paulhus, D., and Christie, R. (1981). Spheres of control: An interactionist approach to assessment of perceived control. In Lefcourt, H. M. (ed.), Research with the Locus of Control Construct (Vol. 1). Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Pentz, M. A. (1983). Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through social skill development. In Glynn, T. J., Leukefeld, C. G., and Ludford, J. P. (eds.), Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse: Intervention Strategies, Research Monograph No. 47, (DHHS Pub No. ADM83-1280) National Institute on Drug Abuse, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  49. Petersen, A. C., Compas, B. E., Brooks-Gunn, J., Stemmler, M., Ey, S., and Grant, K. E. (1993). Depression in adolescence. Am. Psychol. 48: 155–168.Google Scholar
  50. Petersen, A. C., Sarigiani, P. A., and Kennedy, R. E. (1991). Adolescent depression: Why more girls? J. Youth Adolesc. 20: 247–271.Google Scholar
  51. Powers, S. I., Hauser, S. T., and Kilner, L. A. (1989). Adolescent mental health. Am. Psychol. 44: 200–208.Google Scholar
  52. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. J. Appl. Psychol. Measure. 1: 385–401.Google Scholar
  53. Richardson, F. C., and Tasto, D. L. (1976). Development and factor analysis of a Social Anxiety Inventory. Behav. Ther. 7: 453–462.Google Scholar
  54. Roberts, R. E., Lewinsohn, P. M., and Seeley, J. R. (1991). Screening for adolescent depression: A comparison of depression scales. J. Am. Acad. Child Adoles. Psychol. 30: 58–66.Google Scholar
  55. Robins, L. N., and Regier, D. A. (eds.). (1991). Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. The Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Rosenbaum, M. (1980). Schedule for assessing self-control behaviors. Behav. Ther. 11: 109–121.Google Scholar
  57. Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Ruble, D. N., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (1982). The experience of menarche. Child Develop. 53: 1557–1566.Google Scholar
  59. Rutter, M., Izard, C. E., and Read, P. B. (eds.). (1987). Depression in Young People: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. Guilford, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Scheier, L. M., and Botvin, G. J. (1995). Effects of early adolescent drug use on cognitive efficacy in early-late adolescence: A developmental structural model. J. Subst. Abuse 7: 379–404.Google Scholar
  61. Seltzer, V. C. (1989). The Psychosocial Worlds of the Adolescent: Public and Private. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Veit, C. T., and Ware, J. E. (1983). The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 51: 730–742.Google Scholar
  63. Watson, D., and Kendall, P. C. (1989). Common and differentiating features of anxiety and depression: Current findings and future directions. In Kendall, P. C., and Watson, D. (eds.), Anxiety and Depression: Distinctive and Overlapping Features. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  64. Wills, T. A. (1986). Stress and coping in early adolescence: Relationships to substance use in urban school samples. Health Psychol. 5: 503–529.Google Scholar
  65. Windle, M., Hooker, K., Lernerz, K., East, P. L., Lerner, J. V., and Lerner, R. M. (1986). Temperament, perceived competence, and depression in early-and late-adolescents. Develop. Psychol. 22: 384–392.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence M. Scheier
  • Gilbert J. Botvin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations