Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 427–444 | Cite as

Entering into a Collaborative Search for Meaning with Gay and Lesbian Youth in Out-of-Home Care: An Empowerment-Based Model for Training Child Welfare Professionals

  • Gerald P. Mallon


Utilizing an empowerment-based approach, which incorporates self-identified gay and lesbian youths and openly gay and lesbian child welfare professionals as collaborative partners in the process, this article offers a model for training child welfare professionals to work more effectively with gay and lesbian youth in out-of-home care. This three hour training model empowers the gay and lesbian youth, whose voices have been subjugated, to emerge as the experts in training child welfare professionals to more competently and responsively address and meet their needs.


Social Psychology Child Welfare Training Model Welfare Professional Collaborative Partner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alyson, S. (Ed.). (1991). Young, gay and proud. Boston: Alyson Publications.Google Scholar
  2. Borhek, M. V. (1983). Coming out to parents. New York: Pilgrim Press.Google Scholar
  3. Borhek, M. V. (1988). Helping gay and lesbian adolescents and their families: A mother's perspective. Journal of Adolescent Healt Care, 9, 123–128.Google Scholar
  4. Cass, V. C. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219–235.Google Scholar
  5. Cervero, R. M. (1984). Evaluating workshop implementation and outcomes. In T. J. Sork (Ed.), Designing and implementing effective workshops (pp. 55–67). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  6. Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto (1995). We are your children too: Accessible child welfare services for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Toronto: Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto.Google Scholar
  7. Child Welfare Administration and Council of Family and Child Caring Agencies. (Eds.). (1994). Improving services to gay and lesbian youth in New York City's child welfare system. New York: Child Welfare Administration and Council of Family and Child Caring Agencies.Google Scholar
  8. Child Welfare League of America. (1991). Serving the needs of gay and lesbian youths: The role of child welfare agencies, Recommendations of a Colloquium-January 25–26, 1991. Washington, D.C.: Child Welfare League of America.Google Scholar
  9. Coleman, E. (1981). Developmental stages of the coming out process. Journal of Homosexuality, 7, 31–43.Google Scholar
  10. De Monteflores, C., & Schultz, S. J. (1978). Coming out: Similarities and differences for lesbians and gay men. Journal of Social Issues, 34, 59–72.Google Scholar
  11. Dew, R. F. (1994). The family heart: A memoir of when our son came out. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  12. Due, L. (1995). Joining the tribe: Growing up gay and lesbian in the 90's. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  13. Fairchild, B., & Hayward, N. (1989). Now that you know: What every parent should know about homosexuality. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Germain, C. B., & Gitterman, A. (1987). Ecological perspective. In Encyclopedia of social work (18th ed.), (Vol. 2, pp. 488–499). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers.Google Scholar
  15. Germain, C. B., & Gitterman, A. (1996). The life model of social work practice (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Griffin, C., Wirth, M. J., & Wirth, A. G. (1986). Beyond acceptance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  17. Groth, A. N. (1978). Patterns of sexual assault against children and adolescents. In A. W. Burgess, A. N. Groth, L. L. Holmstrom, S. M. Sgroi (Eds.) Sexual assault of children and adolescents (pp. 3–24). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  18. Hartman, A. (1992). In search of subjugated knowledge. Social Work, 37, 483–484.Google Scholar
  19. Hegar, R. (1989). Empowerment-based practice with children. Social Service Review, 63, 372–383.Google Scholar
  20. Herdt, G., & Boxer, A. (1993). Children of horizons: How gay and lesbian teens are leading a new way out of the closet. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  21. Heron, A., (Ed.). (1994). Two teenagers in 20. Boston: Alyson Publications.Google Scholar
  22. Hetrick, E., & Martin, A. D. (1987). Developmental issues and their resolution for gay and lesbian adolescents. Journal of Homosexuality, 13, 25–43.Google Scholar
  23. Hudson, W. W., & Ricketts, W. A. (1980). A strategy for the measurement of homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality, 5, 357–372.Google Scholar
  24. Hunter, J., & Schaecher, R. (1987). Stresses on lesbian and gay adolescents in schools. Social Work in Education, 9,180–188.Google Scholar
  25. Kay, P., Estepa, A., & Desetta, A. (Eds.). (1996). Out with it: Gay and straight teens write about homosexuality. New York: Youth Communications.Google Scholar
  26. Mallon, G. P. (1992). Gay and no place to go: Assessing the needs of gay and lesbian adolescents in out-of-home care settings. Child Welfare, 71, 547–556.Google Scholar
  27. Mallon, G. P. (1994). We don't exactly get the welcome wagon: The experience of gay and lesbian adolescents in New York City's child welfare system. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. City University of New York, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Mallon, G. P. (1997). Toward a competent child welfare service delivery system for gay and lesbian adolescents and their families. Journal of Multicultural Social Work 5(3/4), 177–194.Google Scholar
  29. Mallon, G. P. (in press a). Gay, lesbian and bisexual childhood and adolescent development: An ecological perspective. In G. Appleby & J. Anastas (Eds.). Not just a passing phase: Social work with gay, lesbian and bisexual persons. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Mallon, G. P. (1998). We don't exactly get the welcome wagon: The experiences of gay and lesbian adolescents in child welfare systems. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Mallon, G. P. (under review). Coverage of gay and lesbian issues in four social work journals-1965–1996. Families in Society.Google Scholar
  32. Maluccio, A. N. (Ed.). (1981). Promoting competence in clients—A new/old approach to social work practice. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  33. Malyon, A. K. (1981). The homosexual adolescent: Developmental issues and social bias. Child Welfare League of America, 60, 321–330.Google Scholar
  34. Martin, A. D. (1982). Learning to hide: The socialization of the gay adolescent. In S. C. Feinstein, J. G. Looney, A. Schartzberg, & A. Sorosky, (Eds.), Adolescent psychiatry: Developmental and clinical studies, (pp. 52–65). Vol. 10. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Minton, H. L., & Mc Donald, G. J. (1984). Homosexual identity formation as a developmental process. In J. P. De Cecco & M. G. Shively, (Eds.), Origins of sexuality and homosexuality, (pp. 91–104). New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  36. Miranda, D. (1996). I hated myself. In P. Kay, A. Estepa, & A. Desetta (Eds.) Out with it: Gay and straight teens write about homosexuality (pp. 34–39). New York: Youth Communications.Google Scholar
  37. Monette, P. (1992). Becoming a man: Half a life story. NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  38. National Resource Center for Youth Development. (1996). Personal correspondence.Google Scholar
  39. Newton, D. E. (1978). Homosexual behavior and child molestation: A review of the evidence. Adolescence, 13, 205–215.Google Scholar
  40. Olson, E. D., & King, C. A. (1995). Gay and lesbian self-identification: A response to Rotherram-Borus and Fernandez. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 35–39.Google Scholar
  41. Parents & Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG). (1990). Why is my child gay? Washington, D. C.: Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays.Google Scholar
  42. Pharr, S. (1988). Homophobia: A weapon of sexism. Little Rock, AK: Chardon Press.Google Scholar
  43. Savin-Williams, R. C., & Rodriguez, R. G. (1993). A developmental clinical perspective on lesbian, gay male and bisexual youth. In T. P. Gullotta, G. R. Adams, & R. Montemayor (Eds.). Adolescent sexual: Advances in adolescent development (Vol. 5) (pp. 77–101). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Schneider, M. (1988). Often invisible: Counselling gay and lesbian youth. Toronto: Toronto Central Youth Services.Google Scholar
  45. Schneider, M. (1989). Sappho was a right-on adolescent. In G. Herdt, (Ed.). Gay and lesbian youth, (pp. 111–130). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  46. Schneider, M., & Tremble, B. (1985). Gay or straight? Working with the confused adolescent. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 71–82.Google Scholar
  47. Schneider, M., & Tremble, B. (1986). Training service providers to work with gay or lesbian adolescents: A workshop. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 98–99.Google Scholar
  48. Shernoff, M. (in press). Individual practice with gay men. In G. P. Mallon (Ed.). Foundations of social work practice with gay and lesbian persons. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  49. Silverstein, C. (1977). A family matter: A parent's guide to homosexuality. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  50. Simon, B. (1994). The empowerment tradition in American social work: A history. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Sork, T. J. (1984). The workshop as a unique instructional format. In T. J. Sork (Ed.), Designing and implementing effective workshops (pp. 3–10). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  52. Steinhorn, A. (1979). Lesbian adolescents in residential treatment. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 60, 494–498Google Scholar
  53. Strommen, E. F. (1989). “You're a what?” Family member reactions to the disclosure of homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 18, 37–58.Google Scholar
  54. Sullivan, T. (1994). Obstacles to effective child welfare service with gay and lesbian youths. Child Welfare, 73, 291–304.Google Scholar
  55. Sullivan, T., & Schneider, M. (1987). Development and identity issues in adolescent homosexuality. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 4, 13–24.Google Scholar
  56. The Media Group. (1995). Working it out: Scenes from the lives of lesbian and gay youth. New York: HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies/Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene.Google Scholar
  57. Troiden, R. R. (1993). The formation of homosexual identities. In L.D. Garnets & D.G. Kimmel (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay male experiences (pp. 191–217). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald P. Mallon
    • 1
  1. 1.Columbia University School of Social WorkUSA

Personalised recommendations