Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 211–235 | Cite as

Lost Luggage: A Field Study of Emotion–Antecedent Appraisal

  • Klaus R. Scherer
  • Grazia Ceschi


One hundred twelve airline passengers reporting their luggage lost to the baggage retrieval service in a major international airport were interviewed after their interaction with an airline agent. Participants were asked to rate their emotional state before and after the interaction with the agent and to provide information on how they had appraised the situation. The data are interpreted with respect to (1) type and intensity of the emotions felt in this situation, (2) appraisal theory predictions of emotion elicitation and differentiation, and (3) emotional change in the course of the interaction following reappraisal of the situation.


Social Psychology Field Study Emotional State International Airport Theory Prediction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnold, M. B. (1960). Emotion and personality. Vol. 1 and 2. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Conway, M. A., & Bekerian, D. A. (1987). Situational knowledge and emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 1, 145–191.Google Scholar
  3. De Rivera, J. (1977). A structural theory of the emotions. Psychological Issues, 10,No. 4, Monograph 40.Google Scholar
  4. Edwards, P. (in preparation). Differenciation qualitative et quantitative des émotions. (Qualitative and quantitative differentiation of emotions). Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Geneva.Google Scholar
  5. Ellsworth, P. C. (1991). Some implications of cognitive appraisal theories of emotion. In K. Strongman (ed.), International review of studies on emotion (pp. 143–161). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Ellsworth, P. C., & Smith, C. A. (1988a). From appraisal to emotion: Differences among unpleasant feelings. Motivation and Emotion, 12, 271–302.Google Scholar
  7. Ellsworth, P. C., & Smith, C. A. (1988b). Shades of joy: Patterns of appraisal differentiating pleasant emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 301–331.Google Scholar
  8. Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R.S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: Study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 150–170.Google Scholar
  9. Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1988). Coping as a mediator of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 466–475.Google Scholar
  10. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Frijda, N. H. (1987). Emotion, cognitive structure, and action tendency. Cognition and Emotion, 1, 115–143.Google Scholar
  12. Frijda, N. H., Kuipers, P., & ter Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(2), 212–228.Google Scholar
  13. Gehm, Th., & Scherer, K. R. (1988). Relating situation evaluation to emotion differentiation: Nonmetric analysis of cross-cultural questionnaire data. In K. R. Scherer (ed.), Facets of emotion: Recent research. (pp. 61–78). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  14. Keltner, D., Ellsworth, P. C., & Edwards, K. (1993). Beyond simple pessimism: Effects of sadness and anger on social perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 740–752.Google Scholar
  15. Lazarus, R. S. (1968). Emotions and adaptation: Conceptual and empirical relations. In W. J. Arnold (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 16, pp. 175–270). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  16. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Lazarus, R. S., & Smith, C. A. (1988). Knowledge and appraisal in the cognition-emotion relationship. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 281–300.Google Scholar
  18. Manstead, A. S. R., & Tetlock, P. E. (1989). Cognitive appraisals and emotional experience: Further evidence. Cognition and Emotion, 3, 225–240.Google Scholar
  19. Mauro, R., Sato, K., & Tucker, J. (1992). The role of appraisal in human emotions: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 301–317.Google Scholar
  20. McGraw, K. M. (1987). Guilt following transgression: An attribution of responsibility approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 247–256.Google Scholar
  21. Oatley, K., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1987). Towards a cognitive theory of emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 1, 29–50.Google Scholar
  22. Ortony, A., Clore, G.L., & Collins, A. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Parkinson, B. (1996). Emotions are social. British Journal of Psychology. 87, 663–683.Google Scholar
  24. Parkinson, B. (1997). Untangling the appraisal-emotion connection. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1. 62–79.Google Scholar
  25. Parkinson, B., & Lea, M. F. (1991). Investigating personal constructs of emotion. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 73–86.Google Scholar
  26. Parkinson, B., & Manstead, A. S. R., (1992). Appraisal as a cause of emotion. In M. S. Clark (ed.) Review of personality and social psychology, Vol. 13. (pp. 122–149). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Reisenzein, R., & Hofmann, T. (1990). An investigation of dimensions of cognitive appraisal in emotion using the repertory grid technique. Motivation and Emotion. 14, 1–26Google Scholar
  28. Reisenzein, R., & Hofmann, T. (1993). Discriminating emotions from appraisal-relevant situational information: Baseline data for structural models of cognitive appraisals. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 325–355.Google Scholar
  29. Reisenzein, R., & Spielhofer, C. (1994). Subjectively salient dimensions of emotional appraisal. Motivation and Emotion. 18, 31–77.Google Scholar
  30. Roseman, I. J. (1984). Cognitive determinants of emotion: A structural theory. In P. Shaver (ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (pp. 11–36). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Roseman, I. J. (1991). Appraisal determinants of discrete emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 5, 161–200.Google Scholar
  32. Roseman, I. J., Spindel, M. S., & Jose, P. E. (1990). Appraisals of emotion eliciting events: Testing a theory of discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 899–915.Google Scholar
  33. Russel, D., & McAuley, E. (1986). Causal attributions, causal dimensions, and affective reactions to success and failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1174–1185.Google Scholar
  34. Scherer, K. R. (1982). Emotion as a process: Function, origin, and regulation. Social Science Information, 21, 555–570.Google Scholar
  35. Scherer, K. R. (1984). On the nature and function of emotion: A component process approach. In K. R. Scherer and P. Ekman (eds.), Approaches to emotion (pp. 293–317). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  36. Scherer, K. R. (1986). Vocal affect expression: A review and a model for future research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 143–165.Google Scholar
  37. Scherer, K. R. (1988). Criteria for emotion-antecedent appraisal: A review. In V. Hamilton, G. H. Bower, & N. H. Frijda (eds.), Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation (pp. 89–126). Dordrecht: Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  38. Scherer, K. R. (1992). Social psychology evolving. A progress report. In M. Dierkes, & B. Biervert (Eds.), European social science in transition: Assessment and outlook (pp. 178–243). Frankfurt/Boulder: Campus/Westview.Google Scholar
  39. Scherer, K. R. (1993). Studying the emotion-antecedent appraisal process: An expert system approach. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 325–355.Google Scholar
  40. Scherer, K. R. (1997). Profiles of emotion-antecedent appraisal: Testing theoretical predictions across cultures. Cognition and Emotion. 11, 113–150.Google Scholar
  41. Scherer, K. R. (in press). Appraisal theories. In T. Dalgleish, & M. Power (Eds.), Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Scherer, K. R., & Ceschi, G. (submitted). Affective communication in the airport: A field study of affective communication.Google Scholar
  43. Scherer, K. R., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (1986). Emotional experiences in everyday life: A survey approach. Motivation and Emotion, 10, 295–314.Google Scholar
  44. Scherer, K. R., Wallbott, H. G., & Summerfield, A. B. (1986). Experiencing emotion: A cross-cultural study. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Smith, C. A. (1989). Dimensions of appraisal and physiological response in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 339–353.Google Scholar
  46. Smith, C. A., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1985). Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 813–838.Google Scholar
  47. Smith, C. A., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1987). Patterns of appraisal and emotion related to taking an exam. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(3), 475–488.Google Scholar
  48. Smith, C. A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Appraisal components, core relational themes, and the emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 223–269.Google Scholar
  49. Smolenaars, A. J., & Schutzelaars, A. J. H. (1986/87). On ‘cognitive’ semantics of emotion words: Solomon quasi ecologically tested. Journal of Semantics, 5, 207–231.Google Scholar
  50. Solomon, R. C. (1976). The passions. The myth and nature of human emotion. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  51. Sonnemans, J., & Frijda, N. H. (1995). The determinants of subjective emotional intensity. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 483–506Google Scholar
  52. Stein, N. L., & Trabasso, T. (1992). The organisation of emotional experience: Creating links among emotion, thinking, language, and intentional action. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 225–244.Google Scholar
  53. Stipek, D., Weiner, B., & Li, K. (1989). Testing some attribution-emotion relations in the People's Republic of China. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 109–116.Google Scholar
  54. Tesser, A. (1990). Smith and Ellsworth's appraisal model of emotion: A replication, extension, and test. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 210–223.Google Scholar
  55. Wallbott, H. G., & Scherer, K. R. (1989). Assessing emotion by questionnaire. In R. Plutchik, & H. Kellerman (eds.), Emotion: Theorv. research. and experience. Vol. 4. The measurement of emotion (pp. 55–82). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Weiner, B. (1982). The emotional consequences of causal attributions. In M. S. Clark and S. T. Fiske (eds.), Affect and cognition (pp. 185–209). The 7th Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  58. Weiner, B., Amirkhan, J., Folkes, V. S., & Verette, J. A. (1987). An attributional analysis of excuse giving: Studies of a naive theory of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 316–324.Google Scholar
  59. Weiner, B., Graham, S., & Chandler, C. (1982). Pity, anger, and guilt: An attributional analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 226–232.Google Scholar
  60. Weiner, B., Russel, D., & Lerman, D. (1979). The cognition-emotion process in achievement related contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1211–1220.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus R. Scherer
    • 1
  • Grazia Ceschi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GenevaGeneva-CarougeSwitzerland
  2. 2.Switzerland

Personalised recommendations