Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 195–209

Effects of Level of Processing on Implicit and Explicit Memory in Depressed Mood

  • José A. Ruiz-Caballero
  • Piedad González
Article

Abstract

Recently, several studies have addressed the question of whether depression affects priming in implicit memory tasks. The main aim of this experiment was to assess the presence of a bias for negative information in explicit memory (free recall) and implicit memory (word-stem completion) tasks among subclinically depressed subjects compared to nondepressed subjects, using the typical levels of processing manipulation. The results of this study show the existence of a mood-congruent memory bias for both implicit and explicit memory in depressed subjects. The theoretical implications of these findings for implicit and explicit memory biases associated with depressed mood are discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571.Google Scholar
  2. Besson, M., Fischler, I., Boaz, T., & Raney, G. (1992). Effects of automatic associative activation on explicit and implicit memory tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 18, 89-105.Google Scholar
  3. Blaney, P. H. (1986). Affect and memory: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 229-246.Google Scholar
  4. Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36, 129-148.Google Scholar
  5. Bower, G. H. (1987). commentary on mood and memory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 25, 443-455.Google Scholar
  6. Bradley, B., & Mathews, A. (1983). Negative self-schemata in clinical depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22, 173-181.Google Scholar
  7. Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., & Williams, R. (1994). Implicit and explicit memory for emotional information in non-clinical subjects. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 65-78.Google Scholar
  8. Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., & Millar, N. (1996). Evidence of emotion-congruent implicit memory effects in clinical and non-cinical depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 865-879.Google Scholar
  9. Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., & Williams, R. (1995). Implicit and explicit memory for emotion-congruent information in clinical depression and anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 755-770.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, A. S., & Mitchell, D. B. (1994). A reevaluation of semantic versus nonsemantic processing in implicit memory. Memory and Cognition, 22, 533-541.Google Scholar
  11. Bumberry, W., Oliver, J., & McClure, J. N. (1978). Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory in a university population using psychiatric estimate as the criterion. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 150-155.Google Scholar
  12. Challis, B. H., & Brodbeck, D. R. (1992). Level of processing affects priming in word fragment completion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 18, 595-607.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, D. M., & Teasdale, J. D. (1985). Constraints on the effects of mood on memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1595-1608.Google Scholar
  14. Cloitre, M., Shear, M. K., Cancienne, J., & Zeitlin, S. B. (1994). Implicit and explicit memory for catastrophic associations to bodily sensation words in panic disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18, 225-240.Google Scholar
  15. Conde, V., Esteban, T., & Useros, E. (1976). Revisión crítica de la adaptación castellana del cuestionario de Beck [A critical review of the Spanish translation of Beck's scale]. Revista de Psicología General y Aplicada, 31, 369-497.Google Scholar
  16. Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing:A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-684.Google Scholar
  17. Craik, F. I. M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the relation of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268-294.Google Scholar
  18. Dalgleish, T., & Watts, F. N. (1990). Biases of attention and memory in disorders of anxiety and depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 589-604.Google Scholar
  19. Denny, E. B., & Hunt, R. R. (1992). Affective valence and memory in depression: Dissociation of recall and fragment completion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 575-580.Google Scholar
  20. Dorfman, J., & Mandler, G. (1994). Implicit and explicit forgetting: When is gist remebered? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47A, 651-672.Google Scholar
  21. Dunn, J. C., & Kirsner, K. (1988). Discovering functionally independent mental processes: The principle of reversed association. Psychological Review, 95, 91-101.Google Scholar
  22. Elliot, C. L., & Greene, R. B. (1992). Clinical depression and implicit memory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 572-574.Google Scholar
  23. Gilligan, C. G., & Bower, G. H. (1984). Cognitive consequences of emotional arousal. In C. E. Izard, J. Kagan, & R. B. Zajonc, (eds.), Emotions, cognition and behavior (pp. 547-588). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Graf, P., & Mandler, G. (1984). Activation makes words more accessible, but not necessarily more retrievable. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 553-568.Google Scholar
  25. Graf, P., Mandler, G., & Haden, P. (1982). Simulating amnesic symptoms in normal subjects. Science, 218, 1234-1244.Google Scholar
  26. Graf, P., & Schacter, D. L. (1985). Implicit and explicit memory for new associations in normal and amnesic subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 11, 501-518.Google Scholar
  27. Greene, R. L. (1990). Spacing effects on implicit memory test. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 1004-1011.Google Scholar
  28. Hertel, P. T. (1994). Depressive deficits in word identification and recall. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 313-327.Google Scholar
  29. Hertel, P. T., & Hardin, T. S. (1990). Remembering with and without awareness in depressed mood. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 45-59.Google Scholar
  30. Jacoby, L. L. (1983). Perceptual enhancement: Persistent effects of an experience. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 9, 21-38.Google Scholar
  31. Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic and intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 513-541.Google Scholar
  32. Jacoby, L. L., & Dallas, M. (1981). On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 306-340.Google Scholar
  33. Jacoby, L. L., Toth, J. P., & Yonelinas, A. P. (1993). Separating conscious and unconscious influences of memory: Measuring recollection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 139-154.Google Scholar
  34. Juilland, A., & Chang-Rodríguez, E. (1964). Frequency dictionary of Spanish words. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton.Google Scholar
  35. Kendall, P. C., & Watson, D. (1989). Anxiety and depression. Distinctive and overlapping features. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. MacLeod, C. (1990). Mood disorders and cognition. In M. W. Eysenck (Ed.), Cognitive psychology: An international review. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Mandler, G. (1980). Recognizing: The judgment of previous occurrence. Psychological Review, 87, 252-271.Google Scholar
  38. Mandler, G. (1991). Your face looks familiar but I can't remember your name: A review of dual process theory. In I. W. E. Hockley & S. Lewandowsky (Eds.), Relating theory and data: Essays on human memory in honour of Bennet B. Murdock (pp. 207-225). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  39. Mathews, A., Mogg, K., May, J., & Eysenck, M. (1989). Implicit and explicit memory bias in anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 236-240.Google Scholar
  40. Matt, G. E., Vázquez, C., & Campbell, W. K. (1992). Mood-congruent recall of affectively toned stimuli: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 227-255.Google Scholar
  41. McDowall, J. (1984). Recall of pleasant and unpleasant words in depressed subjects. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 93, 401-407.Google Scholar
  42. Polaino, A., Vázquez, C., & Ochoa, E. F L. (1983). An epidemiological study of the prevalence of depression in a sample of the University of Madrid. Unpublished manuscript, Universidad Compultense, Madrid.Google Scholar
  43. Reingold, E. M., & Merikle, P. M. (1990). On the inter-relatedness of theory and measurement in the study of unconscious processes. Mind and Language, 5, 9-28.Google Scholar
  44. Richard, A. & French, C. C. (1991). Effects of encoding and anxiety on implicit and explicit memory performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 131-139.Google Scholar
  45. Richardson-Klavehn, A., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). Measures of memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 475-543.Google Scholar
  46. Richardson-Klavehn, A., Gardiner, J. M., & Java, R. J. (1994). Involuntary conscious memory and the method of opposition. Memory, 2, 1-29.Google Scholar
  47. Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1992). Depression and implicit memory: A commentary. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 587-591.Google Scholar
  48. Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1993). Implicit memory in normal human subjects. In F. Boller & J. Grafman (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology (Vol. 8, pp. 63-131). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  49. Roediger, H. L., III, Weldon, M. S., Stadler, M. L., & Riegler, G. L. (1992). Direct comparison of two implicit memory tests: Word fragment and word stem completion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 1251-1269.Google Scholar
  50. Ruiz-Caballero, J. A., Bermúdez, J. (1993). The role of affective focus: Replication and extension of mood congruent and memory. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 191-197.Google Scholar
  51. Ruiz-Caballero, J. A., & González, P. (1994). Implicit and explicit memory bias in depressed and nondepressed subjects. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 555-570.Google Scholar
  52. Scarborough, D. L., Gerard, L., & Cortese, C. (1979). Accessing lexical memory: The transfer of word repetition effects across task and modality. Memory and Cognition, 7, 3-12.Google Scholar
  53. Schacter, D. L. (1987). Implicit memory: History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 13, 501-518.Google Scholar
  54. Schacter, D. L., & Graf, P. (1986). Effects of elaborative processing on implicit and explicit memory for new associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 12, 432-444.Google Scholar
  55. Singer, J. A., & Salovey, P. (1988). Mood and memory: Evaluating the network theory of affect. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 211-251.Google Scholar
  56. Teasdale, J. D., & Russell, M. L. (1983) Differential effects of induced mood on recall of positive, negative and neutral words. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 22, 163-171.Google Scholar
  57. Thapar, A., & Greene, R. L. (1994). Effects of level of processing on implicit and explicit tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20, 671-679.Google Scholar
  58. Toth, J. P., Lindsay, D. S., & Jacoby, L. L. (1992). Awareness, automaticity, and memory dissociations. In L. R. Squire & N. Butters (Eds.), Neuropsychology of memory (2nd ed., pp. 46-57). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  59. Toth, J. P., Reingold, E. M., & Jacoby, L. L. (1994). Toward a redefinition of implicit memory: Process dissociations following elaborative processing and self-generation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20, 290-303.Google Scholar
  60. Tulving, E., Schacter, D. L., & Stark, H. A. (1982). Priming effects in word-fragment completion are independent of recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 8, 336-342.Google Scholar
  61. Watkins, P. C., Mathews, A., Williamson, D. A., & Fuller, R. D. (1992). Mood-congruent memory in depression: Emotional priming or elaboration? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 581-586.Google Scholar
  62. Williams, J. M. G., Watts, F. N., MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. (1988). Cognitive psychology and the emotional disorders. Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  63. Zeitlin, S. B., & McNally R. J. (1991). Implicit and explicit memory bias for threat in post-traumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29, 451-457.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • José A. Ruiz-Caballero
    • 1
  • Piedad González
    • 2
  1. 1.Facultad de PsicologíaUniversidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)MadridSpain
  2. 2.Universidad Nacional de Educación a DistanciaSpain

Personalised recommendations