Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 349–362 | Cite as

Variations in Self-Determination Across the Stages of Change for Exercise in Adults

  • Elaine Mullan
  • David Markland


This study explored the relationship between self-determination in the regulation of exercise behavior and stage of change for exercise. Deci and Ryan (1985, 1990) outlined a continuum of behavioral regulation that ranges from non-self-determined regulation (external regulation) to completely self-determined regulation (intrinsic regulation). Prochaska and DiClemente (1984) outlined five stages of behavior change that range from no thoughts of changing (precontemplation) to maintenance of change (maintenance). In our study, 314 individuals completed measures of regulation in exercise behavior and stage of change for exercise. Discriminant function analysis revealed that those in the latter stages of change were more self-determined in their behavioral regulation than those in the early stages of change. An analysis of variance indicated that self-determination increased from the lower to the upper stages of change. Results endorse the importance of motivational considerations in understanding the change process.


Function Analysis Social Psychology Behavior Change Discriminant Function Change Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Mullan
    • 1
  • David Markland
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BathClaverton Down, BathUK
  2. 2.University of WalesBangor

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