Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 315–332 | Cite as

Stress, Social Support, and HIV-Status Disclosure to Family and Friends Among HIV-Positive Men and Women

  • Seth C. Kalichman
  • Michael DiMarco
  • James Austin
  • Webster Luke
  • Kari DiFonzo
Article

Abstract

Patterns of HIV-status disclosure and social support were examined among 331 HIV-positive men and women. Structured interviews assessed HIV-status disclosure to family and friends, perceived stress of disclosure, social support, and depression. Results showed patterns of selective disclosure, where most participants disclosed to some relationship members and not to others. Rates of disclosure were associated with social support. Friends were disclosed to most often and perceived as more supportive than family members, and mothers and sisters were disclosed to more often than fathers and brothers and perceived as more supportive than other family members. Path analyses tested a model of HIV-status disclosure showing that perceived stress of disclosing HIV was associated with disclosure, and disclosures were related to social support. Disclosure and its association to social support and depression varied for different relationships and these differences have implications for mental health and coping interventions.

social support HIV-AIDS psychological adjustment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arbuckle, J. L., and Worthke, W. (1999). Amos 4. 0 User's Guide, Small Waters Corporation, Chicago.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T., and Steer, R. A. (1983). BDI: Beck Depression Inventory manual, Psychological Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bharat, S. (1996). Disclosure in the family. Int. Conf. AIDS 11: 44.Google Scholar
  4. Brock, D., Sarason, I., Sarason, B., and Pierce, G. (1996). Simultaneous assessment of perceived global and relationship-specific support. J. Soc. Pers. Relat. 13: 143–152.Google Scholar
  5. Gielen, A. C., O'Campo, P., Faden, R. R., and Eke, A. (1997). Women's disclosure of HIV status: Experiences of mistreatment and violence in an urban setting. Women & Health 25: 19–31.Google Scholar
  6. Green, G. (1993). Social support and HIV. AIDS Care 5: 87–104.Google Scholar
  7. Hays, R. B., McKusick, L., Pollack, L., and Hilliard, R. (1993). Disclosing HIV seropositivity to significant others. AIDS 7: 425–431.Google Scholar
  8. Huber, C. H. (1996). Facilitating disclosure of HIV-positive status to family members. Fam. J.: Counsel. Ther. Couples Fam. 4: 53–55.Google Scholar
  9. Jeffe, D. B., Khan, S. R., Meredith, K. L., Schlesinger, M., Fraser, V., and Mundy, L. M. (2000). Disclosure of HIV status to medical providers: Differences by gender, race, and immune function. Public Health Rep. 115: 38–45.Google Scholar
  10. Kalichman, S. C., Rompa, D., and Cage, M. (2000). Distinguishing between overlapping somatic symptoms of depression and HIV disease in people living with HIV-AIDS. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 188: 662–670.Google Scholar
  11. Kimberly, J. A., and Serovich, J. M. (1996). Perceived social support among people living with HIV/AIDS. Am. J. Fam. Ther. 24: 41–53.Google Scholar
  12. Mansergh, G., Marks, G., Simoni, J. J. (1995). Self-disclosure of HIV infection among men who vary in time since seropositive diagnosis and symptomatic status. AIDS 9: 639–644.Google Scholar
  13. Marks, G., Bundek, N., Richardson, J., Ruiz, M., Malonado, N., and Mason, H. (1992). Self-Disclosure of HIV Infection: preliminary results from a sample of Hispanic men. Health Psychol. 11: 300–306.Google Scholar
  14. Rothenberg, K. H., and Paskey, S. (1995). The risk of domestic violence and women with HIV infection: Implications for partner notification, public policy, and the law. Am. J. Public Health 85: 1569–1576.Google Scholar
  15. Schnell, D., Higgins, D., Wilson, R., Goldbaum, G., Cohn, D., and Wolitski, R. (1992). Men's disclosure of HIV test results to male primary sex partners. Am. J. Pub. Health 82: 1675–1676.Google Scholar
  16. Serovich, J. M., Kimberly, J. A., Greene, K. (1998). Perceived family member reaction to women's disclosure of HIV-positive information. Fam. Stud. 47: 15–22.Google Scholar
  17. Simoni, J., Mason, H., Marks, G., Ruiz, M., Reed, D., and Richardson, J. (1995). Women's self-disclosure of HIV infection: Rates, reasons, and reactions. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 63: 474–478.Google Scholar
  18. Smith, M. Y., and Rapkin, B. D. (1996). Social support and barriers to family involvement in caregiving for person with AIDS: Implications for patient education. Patient Educ. Counsel. 27: 85–94.Google Scholar
  19. Sowell, R. L., Lowenstein, A., Moneyham, L., Demi, A., Yuko, M., and Seal, B. F. (1997). Resources, stigma, and patterns of disclosure in rural women with HIV infection. Public Health Nurs. 14: 302–312.Google Scholar
  20. Stempel, R. R., Moulton, J. M., and Moss, A. R., (1995). Self-disclosure of HIV-1 antibody test results: The San Francisco general hospital cohort. AIDS Educ. Prev. 7: 116–123.Google Scholar
  21. Wolitski, R. J., Rietmeijer, C. A. M., Goldbaum, G. M., Wilson, R. M. (1998). HIV serostatus disclosure among gay and bisexual men in four American cities: General patterns and relation to sexual practices. AIDS Care 10: 599–610.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seth C. Kalichman
    • 1
  • Michael DiMarco
    • 1
  • James Austin
    • 1
  • Webster Luke
    • 1
  • Kari DiFonzo
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for AIDS Intervention Research Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukee

Personalised recommendations