Solar Physics

, Volume 214, Issue 1, pp 65–87 | Cite as

Measurement of Kodaikanal white-light images – VI. Variation of Rotation Rate with Age of Sunspot Groups

  • K.R. Sivaraman
  • Hari Sivaraman
  • S.S. Gupta
  • Robert F. Howard


We find from an analysis of the Kodaikanal sunspot group data that the rotation rates of spot groups increase with their age when the rotation rates are computed after sorting the spot groups life-span-wise. We confirm these findings from an analysis of the Mt. Wilson sunspot data set too. We show that this trend is in good agreement with the internal rotation profiles from helioseismology (GONG) observations and is also consistent with the concept that the footpoints of the magnetic loops of spot groups are initially anchored in the deeper layers in the solar interior and rise to shallower layers as the spots age, and that the spots reflect the rotation rates at the respective depths at which their footpoints are temporally located. We project the `first-day rotation rates' and the `daily rotation rates' of spot groups on the rotation profiles from the GONG observations and derive the initial anchoring depths of the footpoints of the magnetic loops of the spot groups and their rates of rise as the spot groups age. Our results of the rotation rates are in antithesis to the results reported by investigators from the Greenwich spot group data that show a deceleration in rotation rates as the spot groups age which are also inconsistent with the rotation profiles from helioseismology observations.


Internal Rotation Rotation Rate Group Data Sunspot Group Magnetic Loop 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • K.R. Sivaraman
    • 1
  • Hari Sivaraman
    • 2
  • S.S. Gupta
    • 1
  • Robert F. Howard
    • 3
  1. 1.Indian Institute of AstrophysicsBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.San JoseU.S.A
  3. 3.National Solar ObservatoryTucsonU.S.A

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