Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 146, Issue 1–4, pp 297–318 | Cite as

Removal of Remazol Red Rb by using Al (III) as Coagulant-Flocculant: Effect of Some Variables on Settling Velocity

  • Ahmet Gürses
  • Mehmet Yalçin
  • Cetin Dogar


This study addresses the research of the removal of a textile dye from aqueous solutions by using aluminum ions as coagulant-flocculant. A simulated textile wastewater was prepared from Remazol Red RB textile dye. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, and concentrations of the cationic surfactant and electrolyte concentration on the settling velocity ofthe simulated textile wastewater. While investigating these factors, levels of variables were determined by considering the characteristicsof traditional textile wastewater like pH, temperature, and dye concentration. Although traditional coagulation-flocculation processesmake use of different aluminium salts as coagulant-flocculent, in this study, Al ions dissolved in pH and temperature of traditional textilewastewater were used. Furthermore, sludge volume index values (SVI) were determined and conductivity measurements carried out. The resultsshowed that, in the working range of these variables, the spectroscopic color measurement revealed 100% decolorization yieldof wastewater. In conclusion, researchers found that the optimum settling velocity conditions were as follows: low temperature (273K),surfactant concentration of 0.10 g L-1, electrolyte concentration of 0.10 g L-1, dye concentration of 0.025 g L-1 and a pH of 10.05. Finally, by conducting experiments twice under the obtained optimum values, mean settling velocity was 0.014 m min-1 and the mean sludge volume index 140 mL g-1.

coagulation-flocculation and sludge volumeindex settling velocity textile wastewaters 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amirtharajah, A. and Mills, M. K.: 1982, ‘Rapid-mix design for mechanisms of alum coagulation’, Jour. AWWA. 4, 2100-216.Google Scholar
  2. Bousher, A., Shen, X. and Edyvean, R. G. J.: 1997, ‘Removal of colored organic matter by adsorption onto low-cost waste materials’, Wat. Res. 31(8), 2084-2092.Google Scholar
  3. Chanceleir, J. P. H., Chebbo, G. and Lucas-Aiguier, E.: 1998, ‘Estimation of settling velocities’, Wat. Res. 32(11), 449-454.Google Scholar
  4. Cho, S. H., Colin, F., Sardin, M. and Prost, C.: 1993, ‘Settling Velocity Model of Activated Sludge’, Wat. Res. 27(7), 1237-1242.Google Scholar
  5. Duan, J. and Gregory, J.: 1996, ‘Influence of soluble silica on coagulation by aluminium sulphate’, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 107, 309-319.Google Scholar
  6. Duan, J. and Gregory, J.: 1998, ‘Influence of silicic acid on aluminium hydroxide precipitation and flocculation by aluminium salts’, J. Inorg. Biochem. 69, 193-201Google Scholar
  7. Ganesh, R., Boardman, G. D. and Michelsen D.: 1994, ‘Fate of Azo Dyes in Sludges’, Wat. Res. 28(6), 1367-1376.Google Scholar
  8. Gregor, J. E., Nokes, C. J. and Fenton, E.: 1997, ‘Optimizing natural organic matter removal from low turbidity waters by controlled pH adjustment of aluminium coagulation’, Wat. Res. 31(12), 2949-2958.Google Scholar
  9. Jiang, J. Q. and Graham, J. D.: 1996, ‘Enhanced Coagulation Using Al/Fe(III) Coagulants: Effect of Coagulant Chemistry on the Removal of Colour-Causing NOM’, Env. Tech. 17, 937-950.Google Scholar
  10. Kim, S. H., Moon, B. H. and Lee, H. I.: 2001, ‘Effects of pH and dosage on pollutant removal and floc structure during coagulation’, Microchem. J. 68, 197-203.Google Scholar
  11. Lee, D. J., Chen, G. W., Liao, Y. C. and Hsieh, C. C.: 1996, ‘On the free-settling test for estimating activated sludge floc density’, Wat. Res. 30(3), 541-550.Google Scholar
  12. Matsumoto, K., Suganuma, A. and Kunui, D.: 1980, ‘The effect of cationic polymer on the settling characteristics of activated sludge’ Powder Technol. 25(1), 1-10.Google Scholar
  13. Mohan, S. V., Sailaja, P., Srimurali, M. and Karthikeyan, J.: 1999, ‘Color removal of monoazo acid dye from aqueous solution by adsorption and chemical coagulation’, Environ. Eng. and Policy I, 149-154.Google Scholar
  14. Piirtola, L., Uusitalo, R. and Vesilind, A.: 1999, ‘Effect of mineral materials and cations on activated and alum sludge settling’, Wat. Res. 34(1), 191-195.Google Scholar
  15. Rebhun, M. and Lurie, M.: 1993, ‘Control of organic matter by coagulation and floc separation’, Wat. Sci. Tech. 27(11), 1-20.Google Scholar
  16. Rossini, M., Garcia, G. J. and Galluzzo, M.: 1999, ‘Optimization of the coagulation-flocculation treatment: influence of rapid mix parameters’ Wat. Res. 33(8), 1817-1826.Google Scholar
  17. Song, Z., Williams, C. J. and Edyvean, R. G. J.: 2000, ‘Sedimentation of Tannery wastewaters’, Wat. Res. 34, 2171-2176.Google Scholar
  18. Thomas, D. N., Judd, S. J. and Fawcett, N.: 1999, ‘Flocculation modelling: a review’, Wat. Res. 33(7), 1579-1592.Google Scholar
  19. Tünay, O., Kabdasli, I., Eremektar, G. and Orhon D.: 1996, ‘Color removal from textile wastewaters’, Wat. Sci. Tech. 34(11), 9-16.Google Scholar
  20. Thebault, P., Cases, J.M. and Fiessinger, F.: 1981, ‘Mechanism underlying the removal of organic micropollutants during flocculation by an aluminium or iron salt’, Wat. Res.. 15, 183-189.Google Scholar
  21. Tan, B. H., Teng, T. T. and Mohd Omar, A. K.: 2000, ‘Removal of dyes and industrial dye wastes by magnesium chloride’, Wat. Res. 34(2), 597-601.Google Scholar
  22. Van Benschoten, J. E. and Edzwald, J. K.: 1990, ‘Chemical aspects of coagulation using aluminum salts-II. Coagulation of fulvic acid using alum and polyaluminum chloride’, Wat. Res. 24(12), 1527-1535.Google Scholar
  23. Vanderhasselt, A. and Vanrolleghem, P. A.: 2000, ‘Estimation of sludge sedimentation parameters from single batch settling curves’, Wat. Res. 34(2), 395-406.Google Scholar
  24. Vanderhasselt, A. and Verstraete, W.: 1999,‘Short-Term effects of additives on sludge sedimentation characteristics’, Wat. Res. 33(2), 381-390.Google Scholar
  25. Vandevivere, P. C., Bianchi, R. and Verstraete, W.: 1998, ‘Treatment and reuse of wastewater from the textile wet-processing industry: Review of emerging technologies’, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 72, 289-302.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmet Gürses
  • Mehmet Yalçin
  • Cetin Dogar

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations