Aquaculture International

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 551–562 | Cite as

Traditional milkfish aquaculture in Nauru

  • Dirk H.R. Spennemann


Milkfish (Chanos chanos) aquaculture hasa long antiquity on the island of Nauru(Pacific Ocean), predating European contact.Fry were caught in the surf and transferred tobrackish water ponds in the island's interior.While most of the fry died, large numberssurvived. They were harvested when the milkfishreached a body weight of abut 2 pounds. Thispaper describes the traditional approaches toacquaculture and puts them into a moderncontext.

acquaculture indigenous knowledge milkfish Ocania: Nauru 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alava, V.R. 1998. Effect of salinity, dietary lipid source and level on growth of milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry. Aquaculture 167(3–4): 229–236.Google Scholar
  2. Anon. 1890. Bemerkungen zu einer von dem Sekretär Eggert im Auftrage des stellvertretenden Kaiserl. Kommissars für die Marschallinseln aufgenommenen Kartenskizze der Insel Nauru (Pleasant Island). Mitteilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten 3: 135–136.Google Scholar
  3. Anon. 1906. Phosphat auf Nauru. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 23: 447.Google Scholar
  4. Bagarinao, T. 1994. Systematics, distribution, genetics and life history of milkfish, Chanos chanos. Environmental Biology of Fishes 39(1): 23–41.Google Scholar
  5. Bagarinao, T.U. 1991. Biology of Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal). Aquaculture Department Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines.Google Scholar
  6. Bell, J.D. and Gervis M. 1999. New species for coastal aquaculture in the tropical Pacific – constraints, prospects and considerations. Aquaculture International 7(4): 207–223.Google Scholar
  7. Bohne, W. 1926. Die Insel Nauru als Typus eines korallogenen Phosphatlagers. Petermanns Mitteilungen 72: 52–59.Google Scholar
  8. Brandeis, A. 1907: Ethnographische Beobachtungen über die Nauru-Insulaner. Globus 91: 57–62.Google Scholar
  9. Brandeis, A., 1908. Nauru. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung 25: 599–600.Google Scholar
  10. Emata, A.C. Borlongan, I.G. and Damaso, J.P. 2000. Dietary vitamin C and E supplementation and reproduction of milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal. Aquaculture Research 31(7): 557–564.Google Scholar
  11. Emata, A.C. 2000. Live transport of pond-reared milkfish Chanos chanos broodstock. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 31(2): 279–282.Google Scholar
  12. Erdland, A. 1904. Die Insel Nauru (Marschall-Inseln). Gott Will Es! 16: 442–445.Google Scholar
  13. Erdland, A. 1902. Die Insel Nauru (Marschall-Inseln). Hiltruper Monatshefte 18: 442–445.Google Scholar
  14. FAO 1998a. FAO Fisheries Department Fishery Country Profile Nauru. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, February 1998.Google Scholar
  15. FAO 1998b. FAO Fisheries Department Fishery Country Profile Kiribati. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, February 1998.Google Scholar
  16. Filbry, J. 1907. Von Jaluit nach Nauru. Hiltruper Monatshefte 24: 57–64.Google Scholar
  17. Garcia, L.M.B., Hilomen-Garcia, G.V. and Emata, A.C. 2000. Survival of captive milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal broodstock subjected to handling and transporta. Aquaculture Research 31(7): 575–583.Google Scholar
  18. Gowdy, J.M. and McDaniel, C.N. 1999. The physical destruction of Nauru: An example of weak sustainability. Land Economics 75(2): 333–339.Google Scholar
  19. Hambruch, P. 1915. Nauru. 2. Halbband. Friedrichsen & de Gruyter, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  20. Hernsheim, F. 1903. Nauru, eine gehobene Koralleninsel der Marshall-Gruppe. Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg 19: 211–215.Google Scholar
  21. Johannes, R.E. 1981. Words of the Lagoon: Fishing and Marine Lore in the Palau District of Micronesia. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  22. Kayser, A. 1936a. Die Fischerei auf Nauru (Pleasant Island). Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft Wien 66: 92–131.Google Scholar
  23. Kayser, A. 1936b. Die Fischerei auf Nauru (Pleasant Island). Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft Wien 66: 149–204.Google Scholar
  24. Krämer, A. 1898. Nauru. Ein Besuch der Insel. Globus 74: 153–158.Google Scholar
  25. Kretzschmar, K.E. 1913. Nauru. Festschrift zum 2ten Oktober 1913. Evangelic Mission Printery, Nauru.Google Scholar
  26. Kühlmann, K.-J. and Ueberschar, B. 2000. Aquaculture Profile of Chanos chanos. ICCLARM Fishbase: nternational Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management. URL Scholar
  27. Lobel, P.S. 1980. Invasion by the Mozambique tilapia (Sarotherodon mossambicus; Pisces; Cichlidae) of a Pacific Atoll marine ecosystem. Micronesica 16(2): 349–355.Google Scholar
  28. Lobel, P.S. 1978: Gilbertese and Ellice Islander names for fishes and other organisms. Micronesica 14(2): 177–197.Google Scholar
  29. Morioka, S. Ohno, A., Kohno, H. and Taki, Y. 1996. Nutritional condition of larval milkfish, Chanos chanos, occurring in the surf zone. Ichthyological Research 43(4): 367–373.Google Scholar
  30. Morioka, S., Ohno, A., Kohno H. and Taki Y. 1993. Recruitment and survival of milkfish Chanos chanos larvae in the surf zone. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 40(2): 247–260.Google Scholar
  31. Ranoemihardjo, B.S. 1981. Nauru: Eradication of Tilapia from fresh-and brackish water lagoons and ponds with a view to promoting Milkfish culture. Report prepared for the Tilapia Eradication Project. Field Document FI:DP/NAU/78/001. FAO, Rome, Italy. [not seen]Google Scholar
  32. Sonnenschein, F. 1889. Aus dem Schutzgebiet der Marschall-Inseln. Aufzeichnungen über die Insel Nauru (Pleasant Island). Mitteilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten 2: 19–26.Google Scholar
  33. Steinbach, E. 1895. Bericht über die Gesundheitsverhältnisse der Eingeborenen derMarschall-Inseln im Jahre 1893/94 und Bemerkung über Fischgift. Mitteilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten 8: 157–171.Google Scholar
  34. Sumagaysay, N.S. 1998. Milkfish (chanos chanos) production and water quality in brackishwater ponds at different feeding levels and frequencies. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 14(1–2): 81–85.Google Scholar
  35. Swanson, C. 1998. Interactive effects of salinity on metabolic rate, activity, growth and osmoregulation in the euryhaline milkfish (Chanos chanos). Journal of Experimental Biology 201(24): 3355–3366.Google Scholar
  36. Tanaka, H., Uwate, K.R., Juario, J.V., Lee, Cheng Sheng and Foscarini, R. (eds) 1990. Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Milkfish Culture Development in the South Pacific. Tarawa, Kiribati, November 21–25, 1988. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Suva, Fiji.Google Scholar
  37. Tuara, P. 1998. An Assessment of the Role of Women in Fisheries in the Republic of Nauru. Women's Fisheries Development Section, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia. URL Scholar
  38. UNDP 2000. Buada Lagoon Milkfish Farming Project. UNDP Integrated Community Approach for Resource and Environment Programme. URL Scholar
  39. UNEP 2000. Buada lagoon. UNEP Protected Areas Programme Wetlands Register. United Nations Environent Programme. URL Scholar
  40. Wendler, J. 1911. Fischerei auf den Marshall Inseln. Hiltruper Monatshefte 28: 485–492.Google Scholar
  41. Williams, M. and MacDonald, B. 1985. Phosphateers: A History of the British Phosphate Commissioners and the Christmas Island Phosphate Commission. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria.Google Scholar
  42. Zache, H. 1938. Das deutsche Kolonialbuch. Berlin-Schmargendorf und Leipzig, p. 476.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dirk H.R. Spennemann
    • 1
  1. 1.The Johnstone CentreCharles Sturt UniversityAustralia

Personalised recommendations