Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 43–77 | Cite as

Verbal Declarative Memory Dysfunction in Schizophrenia: From Clinical Assessment to Genetics and Brain Mechanisms



The recent literature on the neuropsychology of schizophrenia has emphasized memory deficits as a key area of impairment. Abnormalities in the medial temporal lobe, a brain region crucial for long-term memory formation, have also consistently been reported. We conducted a comprehensive review of verbal declarative memory (VDM) in schizophrenia with the aim of systematically addressing the nature of this impairment. We conclude that verbal declarative memory is significantly impaired in schizophrenia and is largely accounted for by deficits in the encoding stage. Subtle impairments in increased rates of forgetting are present, but are mild compared with those in amnestic disorders. Impairment in other cognitive domains studied thus far (e.g., attention), medication effects, or fluctuations in symptoms do not completely account for the deficit. VDM is among the most impaired neurocognitive domains in schizophrenia (along with attention and executive functions). Milder encoding deficits are present in high-risk subjects and non-psychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia suggesting that components of the deficit are associated with a genetic vulnerability to the illness, and are independent of the frank psychotic illness. Furthermore, VDM is observed in individuals experiencing their first-psychotic episode and it remains fairly consistent over time. Preliminary imaging studies and other work suggest abnormalities in prefrontal-hippocampal processing networks. Future work should emphasize delineating specific information processing components contributing to the deficit. This would allow imaging studies to determine which brain regions contribute to specific information processing deficits in schizophrenia.

schizophrenia verbal declarative memory encoding medial temporal lobe information processing 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbruzzese, M., and Scarone, S. (1993). Memory and attention dysfunctions in story recall in schizophrenia: Evidence of a possible frontal malfunctioning. Biol. Psychol. 35: 51-58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Addington, J., Addington, D., and Maticka-Tyndale, E. (1991). Cognitive functioning and positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 5: 123-134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adler, L. E., Pachtman, E., Franks, R. D., Pechevich, M., Waldo, M. C., and Freedman, R. (1982). Neurophysiological evidence for a defect in neural mechanisms involved in sensory gating in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 17: 639-654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adler, L. E., Olincy, A., Waldo, M., Harris, J. G., Griffith, J., Stevens, K., et al. (1998). Schizophrenia, sensory gating, and nicotinic receptors. Schizophr. Bull. 24: 189-202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aggleton, J. P., and Shaw, C. (1996). Amnesia and recognition memory: A re-analysis of psychometric data. Neuropsychologia 34: 51-62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Albus, M., Hubman, W., Ehrenberg, C., Forcht, U., Mohr, F., Sobizack, N., et al. (1996). Neuropsychological impairment in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients. Eur.Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 246: 249-255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aleman, A., Hijman, R., de Haan, E. H. F., and Kahn, R. S. (1999). Memory impairment in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. Am. J. Psychiatry 156: 1358-1366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  9. Ammons, R. B., and Ammons, C. H. (1962). The Quick Test (QT): Provisional Manual. Psychological Reports (Monograph Supplement I-VII), 111-161.Google Scholar
  10. Arango, C., Bartko, J. J., Gold, J. M., and Buchanan, R.W. (1999). Prediction of neuropsychological performance by neurological signs in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 156: 1349-1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Atkinson, R. C., and Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In: Spence, K.W. (ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Academic Press, New York, pp. 89-195.Google Scholar
  12. Aylward, E., Walker, E., and Bettes, B. (1984). Intelligence in schizophrenia: Meta-analysis of the research. Schizophr. Bull. 10: 430-459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Baaré, W. F. C., Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Hilman, R., Mali, W. P. T., Viergever, M. A., and Kahn, R. S. (1999). Volumetric analysis of frontal lobe regions in schizophrenia: Relation to cognitive function and symptomatology. Biol. Psychiatry 45: 1597-1605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baddeley, A. D. (2000). Short-term and working memory. In: Tulving, E., and Craik, F. I. M. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 77-92.Google Scholar
  15. Baddeley, A. D., and Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In: Bower, G. A. (ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Academic Press, New York, pp. 47-89.Google Scholar
  16. Baker, L. A., Cheng, L. Y., and Amara, I. B. (1983). The withdrawal of benztropine mesylate in chronic schizophrenic patients. Br. J. Psychiatry 143: 584-590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Barker, W. J. (1977). The role of retrieval in schizophrenic memory process. Can. J. Behav. Sci. 9: 176-186.Google Scholar
  18. Basso, M. R., Nasrallah, H. A., Olson, S. C., and Bornstein, R. A. (1998). Neuropsychological correlates of negative, disorganized and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 31: 99-111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bassos, C. A. (1973). Affective content and contextual constraint in recall by paranoid, nonparanoid, and nonpsychiatric patients. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 40: 126-132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bauer, R. M., Tobias, B., and Valenstein, E. (1993). Amnesic disorders. In: Heilman, K. M., and Valenstein, E. (eds.), Clinical Neuropsychology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 523-602.Google Scholar
  21. Bauman, E. (1971). Schizophrenic short-term memory: The role of organization at input. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 36: 14-19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bauman, E., and Murray, D. J. (1968). Recognition versus recall in schizophrenia. Can. J. Psychol. 22: 18-25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Beatty, W. M., Jocic, Z., Monson, N., and Staton, R. D. (1993). Memory and frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 181: 448-453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Benes, F. M. (1999). Evidence for altered trisynaptic circuitry in schizophrenic hippocampus. Biol. Psychiatry 46: 589-599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Berg, P. A., and Leventhal, D. B. (1977). The effect of distractor strength versus rate of item presentation on retention in individuals with schizophrenia. Br. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 16: 147-152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bilder, R. M., Mukherjee, S., Reider, R. O., and Pandurangi, A. K. (1985). Symptomatic and neuropsychological components of defect states. Schizophr. Bull. 11: 409-419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bilder, R. M., Goldman, R. S., Robinson, D., Reiter, G., Bell, L., Bates, J. A., et al. (2000). Neuropsychology of first-episode schizophrenia: Initial characterization and clinical correlates. Am. J. Psychiatry 157: 549-559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Binder, J., Albus, M., Hubmann, W., Scherer, J., Sobizack, N., Franz, U., et al. (1998). Neuropsychological impairment and psychopathology in first-episode schizophrenic patients related to the early course of illness. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 248: 70-77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Blanchard, J. J., and Neale, J. M. (1994). The neuropsychological signature of schizophrenia: Generalized or differential deficit? Am. J. Psychiatry 151: 40-48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bleuler, E. (1950). Dementia Praecox (translated by J. Zinkin), International Universities Press, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Bornstein, R. A., Nasrallah, H. A., Olson, S. C., Coffman, J. A., Torello, M., and Schwarzkopf, S. B. (1990). Neuropsychological deficit in schizophrenic subtypes: Paranoid, non-paranoid, and schizoaffective subgroups. Psychiatry Res. 31: 15-24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Braff, D. L., Heaton, R., Kuck, J., Cullum, M., Moranville, J., Grant, I., et al. (1991). The generalized pattern of neuropsychological deficits in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia with heterogeneous Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Results. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 48: 891-898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Brébion, G., Amador, X., Smith, M.J., and Gorman, J.M.(1997a). Mechanisms underlying memory impairment in schizophrenia. Psychol. Med. 27: 383-393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Brébion, G., Smith, M. J., Amador, X., Malaspina, D., and Gorman, J. (1997b). Clinical correlates of memory in schizophrenia: Differential links between depression, positive and negative symptoms, and two types of memory impairment. Am. J. Psychiatry 154: 1538-1543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Brébion, G., Amador, X., Smith, M. J., and Gorman, J. M. (1998). Memory impairment and schizophrenia: The role of processing speed. Schizophr. Res. 30: 31-39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Brébion, G., Smith, M. J., Gorman, J. M., Malaspina, D., Sharif, Z., and Amador, X. (2000). Memory and schizophrenia: Differential link of processing speed and selective attention with two levels of encoding. J. Psychiatr. Res. 34: 121-127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Brébion, G., Gorman, J. M., Malaspina, D., Sharif, Z., and Amador, X. (2001). Clinical and cognitive factors associated with verbal memory task performance in patients with schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 158: 758-764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Brodal, P. (1992). The Central Nervous System: Structure and Function, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Broga, M. I., and Neufeld, R. W. J. (1981). Multivariate cognitive performance levels and response styles among paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 90: 495-509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Buchanan, R. W., Strauss, M. E., Kirkpatrick, B., Holstein, C., Breier, A., and Carpenter, W. T. (1994). Neuropsychological impairment in deficit versus nondeficit forms of schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 51: 804-811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Buckley, P. F., Moore, C., Long, H., Larkin, C., Thompson, P., Mulvany, F., et al. (1994). H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the left temporal, and frontal lobes in schizophrenia: Clinical, neurodevelopmental, and cognitive correlates. Biol. Psychiatry 36: 792-800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Buckner, R. L., and Koutstaal, W. (1998). Functional neuroimaging studies of encoding, priming, and explicit memory retrieval. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 891-898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Buckner, R. L., Kelley, W. M., and Petersen, S. E. (1999). Frontal cortex contributes to human memory formation. Nat. Neurosci. 2: 311-314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Busatto, G. F., Costa, D. C., Ell, P. J., Pilowsky, L. S., David, A. S., and Kerwin, R. W. (1994). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in schizophrenia during verbal memory activation:A99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission tomography (SPET) study. Psychol. Med. 24: 463-472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Busatto, G. F., David, A. S., Costa, D. C., Ell, P. J., Pilowsky, L. S., Lucey, J. V., et al. (1995). Schizophrenic auditory hallucinations are associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow during verbal memory activation in a study using single photon emission computed tomography. Psychiatry Res. 61: 255-264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Butters, N., Salmon, D. P., Cullum, C. M., Cairns, P., Tröster, A. I., and Jacobs, D. (1988). Differentiation of amnesic and demented patients with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Clin. Neuropsychol. 2: 133-148.Google Scholar
  47. Byrne, M., Hodges, A., Grant, E., Owens, D. C., and Johnstone, E. C. (1999). Neuropsychological assessment of young people at high genetic risk for developing schizophrenia compared with controls: Preliminary findings of the Edinburgh High Risk Study (EHRS). Psychol. Med. 29: 1161-1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Calev, A. (1984a). Recall and recognition in chronic nondemented individuals with schizophrenia: Use of matched tasks. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 93: 172-177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Calev, A. (1984b). Recall and recognition in mildly disturbed individuals with schizophrenia: Use of matched tasks. Psychol. Med. 14: 425-429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Calev, A., and Monk, A. F. (1982). Verbal memory tasks showing no deficit in schizophrenia-fact or artefact? Br. J. Psychiatry 141: 528-530.Google Scholar
  51. Calev, A., Venables, P. H., and Monk, A. F. (1983). Evidence for distinct verbal memory pathologies in severely and mildly disturbed individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 9: 247-264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Calev, A., Berlin, H., and Lerer, B. (1987a). Remote and recent memory in long hospitalized chronic individuals with schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 22: 79-85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Calev, A., Korin, Y., Kugelmass, S., and Lerer, B. (1987b). Performance of individuals with schizophrenia on matched word and design recall tasks. Biol. Psychiatry 22: 699-709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Calev, A., Edelist, S., Kugelmass, S., and Lerer, B. (1991a). Performance of long-stay individuals with schizophrenia on matched verbal and visuospatial recall tasks. Psychol. Med. 21: 655-660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Calev, A., Nigal, D., Kugelmass, S., Weller, P. I., and Lerer, B. (1991b). Performance of long-stay individuals with schizophrenia after drug withdrawal on matched immediate and delayed recall tasks. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 30: 241-245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Calhoun, J. F. (1970). Effects of performance payoff and cues on recall by hospitalized individuals with schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 76: 485-491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Calhoun, J. F., and Moss, R. A. (1981). The role of level of functioning in the modification of psychological deficits in individuals with schizophrenia. J. Psychiatr. Res. 16: 205-211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Cannon, T. D., Mednick, S. A., Parnas, J., Schulsinger, F., Praestholm, J., and Vestergaard, A. (1993). Developmental brain abnormalities in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50: 551-564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Cantor-Graae, E., Warkentin, S., and Nilsson, A. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment of schizophrenic patients during a psychotic episode: Persistent cognitive deficit. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 87: 283-288.Google Scholar
  60. Cassens, G., Inglis, A. K., Appelbaum, P. S., and Gutheil, T. G. (1990). Neuroleptics: Effects on neuropsychological function in chronic schizophrenic patients. Schizophr. Bull. 16: 477-499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Chan, A. S., Kwok, I. C., Chiu, H., Lam, L., Pang, A., and Chow, L. (2000). Memory and organizational strategies in chronic and acute schizophrenic patients. Schizophr. Res. 41: 431-445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Chapman, L. J., and Chapman, J. P. (1978). The measurement of differential deficit. J. Psychiatr. Res. 14: 303-311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Chapman, L. J., and Chapman, J. P. (1989). Strategies for resolving the heterogeneity of individuals with schizophrenia and their relatives using cognitive measures. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 98: 357-366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Chen, E. Y., Lam, L. C., Chen, R. Y., Nguyen, D. G., Chan, C. K., and Wilkins, A. J. (1997). Neuropsychological correlates of sustained attention in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 24: 299-310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Cohen, N. J., and Eichenbaum, H. (1993). Memory, Amnesia, and the Hippocampal System, Cambridge, The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  66. Colombo, C., Abbruzzese, M., Livian, S., Scotti, G., Locatelli, M., Bonfanti, A., et al. (1993). Memory functions and temporal-limbic morphology in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 50: 45-56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Condray, R., Steinhauer, S. R., van Kammen, D. P., and Kasparek, A. (1996). Working memory capacity predicts language comprehension in schizophrenic patients. Schizophr. Res. 20: 1-13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Cornblatt, B. A., and Keilp, J. G. (1994). Impaired attention, genetics, and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 20: 31-46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Cowan, N. (1988). Evolving conceptions of memory storage, selective attention, and their mutual contraints within the human informationprocessing system. Psychol. Bull. 104: 163-191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Cowan, N. (1997). Attention and Memory, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  71. Craik, F. I. M., and Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. J. Verb. Learn. Verb. Behav. 11: 671-684.Google Scholar
  72. Craik, F. I. M., and Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 3: 268-294.Google Scholar
  73. Crespo-Facorro, B., Paradiso, S., Andreasen, N. C., O'Leary, D. S., Watkins, G. L., Ponto, L. L. B., et al. (1999). Recallingword lists reveals "cognitive dysmetria" in schizophrenia: A positron emission tomography study. Am. J. Psychiatry 156: 386-392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Cuesta, M. J., and Peralta, V. (1995). Cognitive disorders in the positive, negative, and disorganization syndromes of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 58: 227-235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Culver, L. C., Kunen, S., and Zinkgraf, S. A. (1986). Patterns of recall in individuals with schizophrenia and normal subjects. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 174: 620-623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Cutting, J. (1979). Memory in functional psychosis. J. Neurol. 42: 1031-1037.Google Scholar
  77. Delis, D. C., Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., and Ober, B. A. (1987). The California Verbal Learning Test-Research Edition, Psychological Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  78. Delis, D. C., Massman, P. J., Butters, N., Salmon, D. P., Cermak, L. S., and Kramer, J. H. (1991). Profiles of demented and amnesic patients on the California Verbal Learning Test: Implications for the assessment of memory disorders. Psychol. Assess. 3: 19-26.Google Scholar
  79. DeLisi, L. E. (2001). Speech disorder in schizophrenia: Review of the literature and exploration of its relation to the uniquely human capacity for language. Schizophr. Bull. 27: 481-496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Dickerson, F. B., Ringel, N. B., and Boronow, J. J. (1991). Neuropsychological deficits in chronic individuals with schizophrenia. Relationship with symptoms and behavior. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 179: 744-749.Google Scholar
  81. Duffy, L., and O'Carroll, R. (1994). Memory impairment in schizophrenia-a comparison with that observed in the Alcoholic Korsakoff Syndrome. Psychol. Med. 24: 155-165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Durkin, T. P., Messier, C., deBoer, P., and Westerink, B. H. C. (1992). Raised glucose levels enhance scopolamine-induced acetylcholine overflow from the hippocampus: An in vivo microdialysis study in the rat. Behav. Brain Res. 49: 181-188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Eitan, N., Levin, Y., Ben-Artzi, E., Levy, A., and Neumann, M. (1992). Effects of antipsychotic drugs on memory functions of schizophrenic patients. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 85: 74-76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Faraone, S. V., Seidman, L. J., Kremen, W. S., Toomey, R., Pepple, J. R., Lyons, M. J., et al. (1995). Neuropsychological functioning among the nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients: A diagnostic efficiency analysis. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 104: 286-304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Faraone, S. V., Seidman, L. J., Kremen, W. S., Toomey, R., Pepple, J. R., and Tsuang, M. T. (1999). Neuropsychological functioning among the nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients: A four-year follow-up study. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 108: 176-181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Faraone, S. V., Seidman, L. J., Kremen, W. S., Toomey, R., Pepple, J. R., and Tsuang, M. T. (2000). Neuropsychological functioning among the nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients: The effect of genetic loading. Biol. Psychiatry 48: 120-126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Fayen, M., Goldman, M. B., Moulthrop, M. A., and Luchins, D. J. (1988). Differential memory function with dopaminergic versus anticholinergic treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Am. J. Psychiatry 145: 483-486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Fernández, G., and Tendolkar, I. (2001). Integrated brain activity in medial temporal and prefrontal areas predicts subsequent memory performance: Human declarative memory formation at the system level. Brain Res. Bull. 55: 1-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Fletcher, P. C., McKenna, P. J., Frith, C. D., Grasby, P. M., Fristin, K. J., and Dolan, R. J. (1998). Brain activations in schizophrenia during a graded memory task studied with functional imaging. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 55: 1001-1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Foster, J. K., and Jelicic, M. (eds.) (1999). Memory: Systems, Process, or Function, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  91. Fucetola, R., Seidman, L. J., Kremen, W. S., Faraone, S. V., Goldstein, J. M., and Tsuang, M. T. (2000). Age and neuropsychological function in schizophrenia: A decline in executive abilities beyond that observed in healthy volunteers. Biol. Psychiatry 48: 137-146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Gabrieli, J. D. E., Poldrack, R. A., and Desmond, J. E. (1998). The role of the left prefrontal cortex in language and memory. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 906-913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ganguli, R., Carter, C., Mintun, M., Brar, J., Becker, J., Sarma, R., et al. (1997). PET brain mapping study of auditory verbal supraspan memory versus visual fixation in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 41: 33-42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Gilbertson, M. W., and van Kammen, D. P. (1997). Recent and remote memory dissociation: Medication effects and hippocampal function in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 42: 585-595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Gold, J. M., and Harvey, P.D. (1993). Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 16: 295-312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gold, J. M., Blaxton, T. A., Hermann, B. P., Randolph, C., Fedio, P., Goldberg, T. E., et al. (1995). Memory and intelligence in lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy and schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 17: 59-65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gold, J. M., Randolph, C., Carpenter, C. J., Goldberg, T. E., and Weinberger, D. R. (1992a). The performance of patients with schizophrenia on theWechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Clin. Neuropsychol. 6: 367-373.Google Scholar
  98. Gold, J. M., Randolph, C., Carpenter, C. J., Goldberg, T. E., and Weinberger, D. R. (1992b). Forms of memory failure in schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 101: 487-494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Gold, J. M., Rehkemper, G., Binks, S. W., 3rd, Carpenter, C. J., Fleming, K., Goldberg, T. E., et al. (2000). Learning and forgetting in schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 109: 534-538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Gold, S., Arndt, S., Nopoulos, P., O'Leary, D. S., and Andreasen, N. (1999). Longitudinal study of cognitive function in first-episode and recent-onset schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 156: 1342-1348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Goldberg, T. E., and Weinberger, D. R. (1996). Effects of neuroleptic medications on the cognition of patients with schizophrenia: A review of recent studies. J. Clin. Psychiatry 57: 62-65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Goldberg, T. E., Weinberger, D. R., Pliskin, N. H., Berman, K. F., and Podd, M. H. (1989). Recall memory deficit in schizophrenia. A possible manifestation of prefrontal dysfunction. Schizophr. Res. 2: 251-257.Google Scholar
  103. Goldberg, T. E., Ragland, J. D., Torrey, E. F., Gold, J. M., Bigelow, L. B., and Weinberger, D. R. (1990). Neuropsychological assessment of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 47: 1066-1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Goldberg, T. E., Gold, J. M., Greenberg, R., Griffin, S., Schulz, S. C., Pickar, D., et al. (1993a). Contrasts between patients with affective disorders and patients with schizophrenia on a neuropsychological test battery. Am. J. Psychiatry 150: 1355-1362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Goldberg, T. E., Torrey, E. F., Gold, J. M., Ragland, J. D., Bigelow, L. B., and Weinberger, D. R. (1993b). Learning and memory in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. Psychol. Med. 23: 71-85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Goldberg, T. E., Torrey, E. F., Gold, J. M., Bigelow, L. B., Ragland, R. D., Taylor, E., et al. (1995). Genetic risk of neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia: A study of monozygotic twins discordant and concordant for the disorder. Schizophr. Res. 17: 77-84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1994). Working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 6: 348-357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Goldsamt, L. A., Barros, J., Schwartz, B. J., Weinstein, C., and Iqbal, N. (1993). Neuropsychological correlates of schizophrenia. Psychiatr. Ann. 23: 151-157.Google Scholar
  109. Goldstein, G., Allen, D. N., and van Kammen, D. P. (1998a). Individual differences in cognitive decline in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 155: 1117-1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Goldstein, J. M., Seidman, L. J., Goodman, J. M., Koren, D., Lee, H., Weintraub, S., et al. (1998b). Are there sex differences in neuropsychological functions among schizophrenic patients? Results from a case-control study. Am. J. Psychiatry 155: 1358-1364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Goldstein, J. M., Goodman, J. M., Seidman, L. J., Kennedy, D. N., Makris, N., Lee, H., et al. (1999). Cortical abnormalities in schizophrenia identified by structural magnetic resonance imaging. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 56: 537-547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Gras-Vincendon, A., Danion, J., Grangé, D., Bilik, M., Willard-Schroeder, D., Sichel, J., et al. (1994). Explicit memory, repetition priming and cognitive skill learning in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 13: 117-126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Green, M. F. (1996). What are the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia? Am. J. Psychiatry 153: 321-330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Green, M. F., and Walker, E. (1985). Neuropsychological performance and positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 94: 460-469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Green, M. F., Kern, R. S., Braff, D. L., and Mintz, J. (2000). Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: Are we measuring the "right stuff"? Schizophr. Bull. 26: 119-136.Google Scholar
  116. Gruzelier, J., Seymour, K., Wilson, L., Jolley, A., and Hirsch, S. (1988). Impairment on neuropsychologic tests of temporohippocampal and frontohippocampal functions and word fluency in remitting schizophrenia and affective disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 45: 623-629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Gur, R. E., Jaggi, J. L., Shtasel, D. L., Ragland, J. D., and Gur, R. C. (1994). Cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia: Effects of memory processing on regional activation. Biol. Psychiatry 35: 3-15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Gur, R. E., Cowell, P., Turetsky, B. I., Gallacher, F., Cannon, T., Bilker, W., et al. (1998). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging study of schizophrenia: Relationship of neuroanatomical changes to clinical and neurobehavioral measures. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 55: 145-152.Google Scholar
  119. Hallack, M., Kupsky, W. J., Hotra, J. W., and Irtenkauf, S. M. (1997). Fetal rat brain injury: Effect of transient maternal hypoxemia. Fetal Diagn. Ther. 12: 68-71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Harris, J. G., Adler, L. E., Young, D. A., Cullum, C. M., Rilling, L. M., Cicerello, A., et al. (1996). Neuropsychological dysfunction in parents of individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 20: 253-260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Harrison, P. J. (1999). The neuropathology of schizophrenia: A critical review of the data and their interpretation. Brain 122: 593-624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Harvey, P. D. (2001). Cognitive and functional impairments in elderly patients with schizophrenia: A review of the recent literature. Harv. Rev. Psychiatry 9: 59-68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Harvey, P. D., and Keefe, R. S. E. (2001). Studies of cognitive change with treatment in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 158: 176-184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Harvey, P. D., and Serper, M. R. (1990). Linguistic and cognitive failures in schizophrenia. A multivariate analysis. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 178: 487-494.Google Scholar
  125. Harvey, P. D., Earle-Boyer, E. A., Wielgus, M. S., and Levinson, J. C. (1986). Encoding, memory, and thought disorder in schizophrenia and mania. Schizophr. Bull. 12: 252-261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Hawkins, K. A., Sullivan, T. E., and Choi, E. J. (1997). Memory deficits in schizophrenia: Inadequate assimilation or true amnesia? Findings from theWechsler Memory Scale-Revised. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 22: 169-179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Heaton, R., Paulsen, J. S., McAdams, L. A., Kuck, J., Zisook, S., Braff, D., et al. (1994). Neuropsychological deficits in individuals with schizophrenia: Relationship to age, chronicity, and dementia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 51: 469-476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Heaton, R. K., Gladsjo, J. A., Palmer, B. W., Kuck, J., Marcotte, T. D., and Jeste, D. V. (2001). Stability and course of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 58: 24-32.Google Scholar
  129. Heckers, S. (2001). Neuroimaging studies of the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Hippocampus 11: 520-528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Heckers, S., Rauch, S. L., Goff, D., Savage, C. R., Schacter, D. L., Fischman, A. J., et al. (1998). Impaired recruitment of the hippocampus during conscious recollection in schizophrenia. Nat. Neurosci. 1: 319-323.Google Scholar
  131. Heckers, S., Goff, D., Schacter, D. L., Savage, C. R., Fischman, A. J., Alpert, N. M., et al. (1999). Functional imaging of memory retrieval in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 56: 1117-1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Heinrichs, R. W. (1994). Performance on tests of diencephalichippocampal verbal memory function in schizophrenia, Korsakoff's syndrome and personality disorder. Schizophr. Res. 13: 127-132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Heinrichs, R. W., and Awad, A. G. (1993). Neurocognitive subtypes of chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 9: 49-58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Heinrichs, R. W., and Zakzanis, K. K. (1998). Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology 12: 426-445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Hellewell, J. S. E., Connell, J., and Deakin, J. F. W. (1994). Affect judgment and facial recognition memory in schizophrenia. Psychopathology 27: 255-261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Hoff, A. L., Riordan, H., O'Donnell, D. W., Morris, L., and DeLisi, L. E. (1992). Neuropsychological functioning of first-episode schizophreniform patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 149: 898-903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Hoff, A. L., Weineke, M., Faustman, W. O., Horon, R., Sakuma, M., Blankfeld, H., et al. (1998). Sex differences in neuropsychological functioning of first-episode and chronically ill schizophrenic patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 155: 1437-1439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Hoff, A. L., Sakuma, M., Weineke, M., Horon, R., Kushner, M., and DeLisi, L. E. (1999). Longitudinal neuropsychological follow-up study of patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 156: 1336-1341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Huron, C., Danion, J. M., Giacomoni, F., Grange, D., Robert, P., and Rizzo, L. (1995). Impairment of recognition memory with, but not without, conscious recollection in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 152: 1737-1742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Iddon, J. L., McKenna, P. J., Sahakian, B. J., and Robbins, T.W. (1998). Impaired generation and use of strategy in schizophrenia: Evidence from visuospatial and verbal tasks. Psychol. Med. 28: 1049-1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Javitt, D. C., Strous, R. D., Grochowski, S., Ritter, W., and Cowan, N. (1997). Impaired precision, but normal retention, of auditory sensory ("echoic") memory information in schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 106: 315-324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Jeste, D. V., Heaton, S. C., Paulsen, J. S., Ercoli, L., Harris, J., and Heaton, R. K. (1996). Clinical and neuropsychological comparison of psychotic depression with nonpsychotic depression and schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 153: 490-496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Johnsen, M. H., and Magaro, P. A. (1987). Effects of mood and severity of illness on memory process in depression and mania. Psychol. Bull. 101: 28-40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Jones, P., and Cannon, M. (1998). The new epidemiology of schizophrenia. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 21: 1-25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Kareken, D. A., Moberg, P. J., and Gur, R. (1996). Proactive inhibition and semantic organization: Relationship with verbal memory in patients with schizophrenia. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 2: 486-493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Katz, I. R., Greenberg, W. M., Barr, G. A., Garbarino, C., Buckley, P., and Smith, D. (1985). Screening for cognitive toxicity of anticholinergic drugs. J. Clin. Psychiatry 46: 323-326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Kay, S. R. (1982). Conceptual disorder in schizophrenia as a function of encoding orientation. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 170: 154-163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kempermann, G., Kuhn, H. G., and Gage, F. H. (1997). More hippocampal neurons in adult mice living in an enriched environment. Nature 386: 493-495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Kenny, J. T., and Meltzer, H. Y. (1991). Attention and higher cortical functions in schizophrenia. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 3: 269-275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Kern, R. S., Green, M. F., Marshall, B. D., Wirshing, W. C., Wirshing, D., McGurk, S. R., et al. (1999). Risperidone versus haloperidol on secondary memory: Can newer medications aid learning? Schizophr. Bull. 25: 223-232.Google Scholar
  151. Koh, S. D., and Kayton, L. (1974). Memorization of "unrelated" word strings by young nonpsychotic individuals with schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 83: 14-22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Koh, S. D., Kayton, L., and Berry, R. (1973). Mnemonic organization in young nonpsychotic individuals with schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 81: 299-310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Koh, S. D., Kayton, L., and Peterson, R. A. (1976). Affective encoding and consequent remembering in schizophrenic young adults. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 85: 156-166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Koh, S. D., Marusarz, T. Z., and Rosen, A. J. (1980). Remembering of sentences by schizophrenic young adults. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 89: 291-294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kolb, B., and Whishaw, I. Q. (1983). Performance of schizophrenic patients on tests sensitive to left or right frontal, temporal, or parietal function in neurological patients. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 171: 435-443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Kraepelin, E. (1971). In: Dementia Praecox and Paraphrenia (p. pp17; translated by R. M. Barclay), Robertson, G. M. (ed.), R. E. Krieger Pub. Co., Huntington, NY (originally in published 1919).Google Scholar
  157. Kremen, W. S., Seidman, L. J., Goldstein, J. M., Faraone, S. V., and Tsuang, M. T. (1994). Systematized delusions and neuropsychological function in paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 12: 223-236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Kremen, W. S., Seidman, L. J., Faraone, S. V., Toomey, R., and Tsuang, M. T. (2000). The paradox of neuropsychological function in schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 109: 743-752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Kremen, W. S., Seidman, L. J., Faraone, S. V., and Tsuang, M. T. (2001). Intelligence quotient and neuropsychological profiles in patients with schizophrenia and normal volunteers. Biol. Psychiatry 50: 453-462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Landrø, N. I. (1994). Memory function in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 90(Suppl. 384): 87-94.Google Scholar
  161. Landrø, N. I., Ørbeck, A. L., and Rund, B. R. (1993). Memory functioning in chronic and non-chronic individuals with schizophrenia, affectively disturbed patients and normal controls. Schizophr. Res. 10: 85-92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Langell, M. E., Purisch, A. D., and Golden, C. T. (1987). Neuropsychological differences between paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia on the Luria-Nebraska Battery. Int. J. Clin. Neuropsychol. 9: 88-94.Google Scholar
  163. Larsen, S. F., and Fromholt, P. (1976). Memory organization and free recall in schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 85: 61-65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Lawrie, S. M., Whalley, H., Kestelman, J. N., Abukmeil, S. S., Byrne, M., Hodges, A., et al. (1999). Magnetic resonance imaging of brain in people at high risk of developing schizophrenia. Lancet 353: 30-33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Levin, S., Yurgelun-Todd, D., and Craft, S. (1989). Contributions of clinical neuropsychology to the study of schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 98: 341-356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Liddle, P. F. (1987). Schizophrenic syndromes, cognitive performance, and neurological dysfunction. Psychol. Med. 17: 49-57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Lutz, J., and Marsh, T. K. (1981). The effect of a dual level word list on schizophrenic free recall. Schizophr. Bull. 7: 509-515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Maher, B. A., Manschreck, T. C., Woods, B. T., Yurgelun-Todd, D. A., and Tsuang, M. T. (1995). Frontal brain volume and context effects in short-term recall in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 37: 144-150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Mahurin, R. K., Velligan, D. I., and Miller, A. L. (1998). Executivefrontal lobe cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: A symptom subtype analysis. Psychiatry Res. 79: 139-149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Manschreck, T. C., Maher, B. A., Milavetz, J. J., Ames, D., Weisstein, C. C., and Schneyer, M. L. (1988). Semantic priming in thought disordered schizophrenic patients. Schizophr. Res. 1: 61-66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Martinez, J. L., and Kesner, R. P. (eds.) (1998). Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  172. McCarley, R. W., Wible, C. G., Frumin, M., Hirayasu, Y., Levitt, J. L., Fischer, I. A., et al. (1999). MRI anatomy of schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 45: 1099-1119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. McClain, L. (1983). Encoding and retrieval in schizophrenics' free recall. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 171: 471-479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. McCreadie, R. G., Latha, S., Thara, R., Padmavathi, R., and Ayankaran, J. R. (1997). Poor memory, negative symptoms and abnormalmovements in never-treated Indian patients with schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiatry 171: 360-363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. McEnvoy, J. P., and Freter, S. (1989). The dose-response relationship for memory impairment by anticholinergic drugs. Compr. Psychiatry 30: 135-138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. McGurk, S. R. (1999). The effects of clozapine on cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. J. Clin. Psychiatry 60 (Suppl. 12): 24-29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. McKenna, P. J., Tamlyn, D., Lund, C. E., Mortimer, A. M., Hammond, S., and Baddeley, A. D. (1990). Amnestic syndrome in schizophrenia. Psychol. Med. 20: 967-972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. McNeil, T. F., Cantor-Graae, E., and Weinberger, D. R. (2000). Relationship of obstetric complications and differences in size of brain structures in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 157: 203-212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Medalia, A., Gold, J., and Merriam, A. (1988). The effects of neuroleptics on neuropsychological test results of schizophrenics. Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 3: 249-271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Meltzer, H. Y., and McGurk, S. R. (1999). The effects of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 25: 233-255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Milner, B., Squire, L. R., and Kandel, E. R. (1998). Cognitive neuroscience and the study of memory. Neuron 20: 445-468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Mirsky, A. F., Anthony, B. J., Duncan, C. C., Ahern, M. B., and Jellam, S. G. (1991). Analysis of the elements of attention: A neuropsychological approach. Neuropsychol. Rev. 2: 109-145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Mishkin, M., Vargha-Khadem, F., and Gadian, D. G. (1998). Amnesia and the organization of the hippocampal system. Hippocampus 8: 212-216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Mockler, D., Riordan, J., and Sharma, T. (1997). Memory and intellectual deficits do not decline with age in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 26: 1-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Mohamed, S., Paulsen, J. S., O'Leary, D., Arndt, S., and Andreasen, N. (1999). Generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: A study of first-episode patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 56: 749-754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Morrison-Stewart, S. L., Williamson, P. C., Corning, W. C., Kutcher, S. P., Snow, W. G., and Merskey, H. (1992). Frontal and non-frontal lobe neuropsychological test performance and clinical symptomatology in schizophrenia. Psychol. Med. 22: 353-359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Mungas, D. (1983). Differential clinical sensitivity of specific parameters of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 51: 848-855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Nachmani, G., and Cohen, B. D. (1969). Recall and recognition free learning in schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 74: 511-516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Nathaniel-James, J. D., Brown, R., and Ron, M. A. (1996). Memory impairment in schizophrenia: Its relationship to executive impairment. Schizophr. Res. 21: 85-96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Nelson, M. D., Saykin, A. J., Flashman, L. A., and Riordan, H. J. (1998). Hippocampal volume reduction in schizophrenia as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging: A meta-analytic study. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 55: 433-440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Nestor, P. G., Shenton, M. E., McCarley, R.W., Haimson, J., Smith, R. S., O'Donnell, B., et al. (1993). Neuropsychological correlates of MRI temporal lobe abnormalities in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 150: 1849-1855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Nestor, P. G., Akdag, S. J., O'Donnell, B. F. O., Niznikiewicz, M., Law, S., Shenton, M. E., et al. (1998a). Word recall in schizophrenia: A connectionist model. Am. J. Psychiatry 155: 1685-1690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Nestor, P. G., Shenton, M. E., Wible, C., Hokama, H., O'Donnell, B. F. O., Law, S., et al. (1998b). A neuropsychological analysis of schizophrenic thought disorder. Schizophr. Res. 29: 217-225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Newcomer, J.W., Craft, S., Fucetola, R., Moldin, S. O., Selke, G., Paras, L., et al. (1999). Glucose-induced increase in memory performance in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 25: 321-335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Nohara, S., Suzuki, M., Kurachi, M., Yamashita, I., Matsui, M., Seto, H., et al. (2000). Neural correlates of memory organization deficits in schizophrenia. A single photon emission computed tomography study with 99mTc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer during a verbal learning task. Schizophr. Res. 42: 209-222.Google Scholar
  196. Nopoulos, P., Flashman, L., Flaum, M., Arndt, S., and Andreasen, N. (1994). Stability of cognitive functioning early in the course of schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 14: 29-37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Nuechterlein, K. H., and Dawson, M. E. (1984). Information processing and attentional functioning in the developmental course of schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 10: 160-203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. O'Leary, D. S., Flaum, M., Kesler, M. L., Flashman, L. A., Arndt, S., and Andreasen, N. C. (2000). Cognitive correlates of the negative, disorganized, and psychotic symptom dimensions of schizophrenia. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 12: 4-15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Olin, S. C., and Mednick, S. A. (1996). Risk factors of psychosis: Identifying vulnerable populations premorbidly. Schizophr. Bull. 22: 223-240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Otto, T., and Eichenbaum, H. (1992). Toward a comprehensive account of hippocampal function: Studies of olfactory learning permit an integration of data across multiple levels of neurobiological analysis. In: Squire, L. R., and Butters, N. (eds.), Neuropsychology of Memory, Guilford Press, New York, pp. 415-428.Google Scholar
  201. Palmer, B. W., Heaton, R. K., Paulsen, J. S., Kuck, J., Braff, D., Harris, M. J., et al. (1997). Is it possible to be schizophrenic and neuropsychologically normal? Neuropsychology 11: 437-446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Park, S., Holzman, P. S., and Goldman-Rakic, P. (1992). Schizophrenics show spatial working memory deficits. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 49: 975-982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Paulsen, J. S., Heaton, R. K., Sadek, J. R., Perry, W., Delis, D. C., Braff, D., et al. (1995). The nature of learning and memory impairments in schizophrenia. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 1: 88-99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Pearlson, G. D., and Marsh, L. (1999). Structural brain imaging in schizophrenia: A selective review. Biol. Psychiatry 46: 627-649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Perlick, D., Stastny, P., Katz, I., Mayer, M., and Mattis, S. (1986). Memory deficits and anticholinergic levels in chronic schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 143: 230-234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Perlick, D., Mattis, S., Stastny, P., and Silverstein, B. (1992). Negative symptoms are related to both frontal and non-frontal neuropsychological measures in chronic schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 49: 245-246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Posner, M. I., and Petersen, S. E. (1990). The attention system of the human brain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 13: 25-42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. The Psychological Corporation (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. Technical Manual, Harcourt Brace & Company, San Antonio.Google Scholar
  209. Purdon, S. E., Jones, B. D. W., Stip, E., Labelle, A., Addington, D., David, S. R., et al. (2000). Neuropsychological change in early phase schizophrenia during 12 months of treatment with olanzapine, risperidone, or haloperidol. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57: 249-258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Putnam, K. M., and Harvey, P. D. (1999). Memory performance of geriatric and non-geriatric chronic schizophrenic patients: A crosssectional study. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 5: 494-501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Rapport, L. J., Axelrod, B. N., Theisen, M. E., Brines, D. B., Kalechstein, A. D., and Ricker, J. H. (1997). Relationship of IQ to verbal learning and memory: Test and retest. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 19: 655-666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., and Raven, J. (1976). Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices, H.K. Lewis, London.Google Scholar
  213. Rees, S., Breen, S., Loeliger, M., McCrabb, G., and Harding, R. (1999). Hypoxemia near mid-gestation has long-term effects on fetal brain development. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 58: 932-945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Rison, R. A., and Stanton, P. K. (1995). Long-term potentiation and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors: Foundations of memory and neurologic disease. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 19: 533-552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Rizzo, L., Danion, J. M., van der Linden, M., and Grange, D. (1996). Patients with schizophrenia remember that an event has occurred, but not when. Br. J. Psychiatry 168: 427-431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Rubin, P., Holm, A., Moller-Madsen, S., Videbech, P., Hertel, C., Povlsen, U. J., et al. (1992). Neuropsychological deficit in newly diagnosed patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 92: 35-43.Google Scholar
  217. Rushe, T. M., Woodruff, P. W. R., Murray, R. M., and Morris, R. G. (1999). Episodic memory and learning in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 35: 85-96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Russell, E. W. (1987). A reference scale method for constructing neuropsychological test batteries. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 9: 376-392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Russell, P. N., and Beekhuis, M. E. (1976). Organization in memory: A comparison of psychotics and normals. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 85: 527-534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Salame, P., Danion, J. M., Peretti, S., and Cuervo, C. (1998). The state of functioning of working memory in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 30: 11-29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Salmon, D. P., and Butters, N. (1995). Neurobiology of skill and habit learning. In: Squire, L. R., and Kosslyn, S. M. (eds.), Findings and Current Opinion in Cognitive Neuroscience, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 91-97.Google Scholar
  222. Sapolsky, R. M. (2000). Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57: 925-935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Sauer, H., Hornstein, C., Richter, P., Mortimer, A., and Hirsch, S. R. (1999). Symptom dimensions of old-age individuals with schizophrenia: Relationship to neuropsychological and motor abnormalities. Schizophr. Res. 39: 31-38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Sautter, F. J., McDermott, B. E., Cornwell, J. M., Borges, A., Johnson, J., Vasterling, J. J., et al. (1997). A comparison of neuropsychological deficits in familial individuals with schizophrenia, nonfamilial individuals with schizophrenia, and normal controls. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 185: 641-644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Saykin, A. J., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E., Mozley, P. D., Mosley, L. H., Resnick, S. M., et al. (1991). Neuropsychological function in schizophrenia: Selective impairment in memory and learning. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 48: 619-624.Google Scholar
  226. Saykin, A. J., Shtasel, D. L., Gur, R. E., Kester, D. B., Mosley, L. H., Stafiniak, M. S., et al. (1994). Neuropsychological deficits in neuroleptic naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 51: 124-131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Schacter, D. L. (1987). Memory, amnesia and frontal lobe dysfunction. Psychobiology 15: 21-36.Google Scholar
  228. Schacter, D. L., and Wagner, A. D. (1999). Medial temporal lobe activations in fMRI and PET studies of episodic encoding and retrieval. Hippocampus 9: 7-24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Schmand, B., Brand, N., and Kuipers, T. (1992a). Procedural learning of cognitive and motor skills in psychotic patients. Schizophr. Res. 8: 157-170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Schmand, B., Kop, W. J., Kuipers, T., and Bosveld, J. (1992b). Implicit learning in psychotic patients. Schizophr. Res. 7: 55-64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Schmand, B., Kuipers, T., Van Der Gaag, M., Bosveld, J., Bulthuis, F., and Jellema, M. (1994). Cognitive disorders and negative symptoms as correlates of motivational deficits in psychotic patients. Psychol. Med. 24: 869-884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Schröder, J., Tittel, A., Stockert, A., and Karr, M. (1996). Memory deficits in subsyndromes of chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 21: 19-26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Schwartz, B. L., Deutsch, L. H., Cohen, C., Warden, D., and Deutsch, S. I. (1991). Memory for temporal order in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 29: 329-339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Schwartz, B. L., Rosse, R. B., and Deutsch, S. I. (1992). Toward a neuropsychology of memory in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 28: 341-351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Seaton, B. E., Goldstein, G., and Allen, D. N. (2001). Sources of heterogeneity in schizophrenia: The role of neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychol. Rev. 11: 45-67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Seidman, L. J. (1983). Schizophrenia and brain dysfunction: An integration of recent neurodiagnostic findings. Psychol. Bull. 94: 195-238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Seidman, L. J., Cassens, G., Kremen, W. S., and Pepple, J. R. (1992). The neuropsychology of schizophrenia. In: White, R. (ed.), Clinical Syndromes in Adult Neuropsychology, The Practitioner's Handbook, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 381-449.Google Scholar
  238. Seidman, L. J., Yurgelun-Todd, D., Kremen, W. S., Woods, B. T., Goldstein, J. M., Faraone, S. V., et al. (1994). Relationship of prefrontal and temporal lobe MRI measures to neuropsychological performance in chronic schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 35: 235-246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Seidman, L. J., Stone, W. S., Jones, R., Harrison, R. H., and Mirsky, A. F. (1998a). Comparative effects of schizophrenia and temporal lobe epilepsy on memory. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 4: 342-352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Seidman, L. J., Stone, W. S., Sachs, W., Kalinowski, A. G., Patel, J., Schildkraut, J. J., et al. (1998b). Improvement in declarative memory in patients with chronic schizophrenia in response to clozapine: A preliminary report. Presented at the American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, Canada, May 1998.Google Scholar
  241. Seidman, L. J., Faraone, S. V., Goldstein, J. M., Goodman, J. M., Kremen, W. S., Toomey, R., et al. (1999). Thalamic and amygdala-hippocampal volume reductions in first degree relatives of schizophrenic patients: An MRI based morphometric analysis. Biol. Psychiatry 46: 941-954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Seidman, L. J., Kremen, W. S., Koren, D., Faraone, S. V., Goldstein, J. M., and Tsuang, M. T. (2002a). A comparative profile analysis of neuropsychological functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar psychoses. Schizophr. Res. 53: 31-44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Seidman, L. J., Faraone, S. V., Goldstein, J. M., Kremen, W. S., Horton, N. J., Makris, N., et al. (2002b). Left hippocampal volume as a vulnerability indicator for schizophrenia: An MRI morphometric study of non-psychotic first degree relatives. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 59: 839-849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Sengel, R. A., and Lovallo, W. R. (1983). Effects of cueing on immediate and recent memory in individuals with schizophrenia. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 171: 426-430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Shedlack, K., Lee, G., Sakuma, M., Xie, S., Kushner, M., Pepple, J., et al. (1997). Language processing and memory in ill and well siblings from multiplex families affected with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 25: 43-52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Shelley, A. M., Ward, P. B., Catts, S. V., Michie, P. T., Andrews, S., and McConaghy, N. (1991). Mismatch negativity, an index of a preattentive processing deficit in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 30: 1059-1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Shenton, M. E., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F. A., Pollak, S. D., LeMay, M., Wible, C. G., et al. (1992). Abnormalities of the left temporal lobe and thought disorder in schizophrenia. A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. N. Engl. J. Med. 327: 604-612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Shimamura, A. P. (1995). Memory and frontal lobe function. In: Gazzaniga, M. S. (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 803-813.Google Scholar
  249. Silver, H., and Geraisy, N. (1995). Effects of Biperiden and Amantadine on memory in medicated chronic schizophrenic patients. A double-blind cross-over study. Br. J. Psychiatry 166: 241-243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Silverstein, M. L., Schwartz, M. L., and Rennick, P. M. (1973). Recall of verbal material in temporal lobe epilepsy and memory. Dis. Nerv. Syst. 34: 234-240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Silverstein, M. L., McDonald, C., and Meltzer, H. Y. (1988). Differential patterns of neuropsychological deficit in psychiatric disorders. J. Clin. Psychol. 44: 412-415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Speed, M., Toner, B. B., Shugar, G., and Di Gasbarro, I. (1991). Thought disorder and verbal recall in acutely psychotic patients. J. Clin. Psychol. 47: 736-744.Google Scholar
  253. Spitzer, M., Braun, U., Hermle, L., and Maier, S. (1993). Associative semantic network dysfunction in thought-disordered schizophrenic patients: Direct evidence from indirect semantic priming. Biol. Psychiatry 34: 864-877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Squire, L. R., and Kandel, E. R. (1999). Memory: >From Mind to Molecules, Scientific American Library, New York.Google Scholar
  255. Squire, L. R., and Zola, S. M. (1998). Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia. Hippocampus 8: 205-211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Squire, L. R., Cohen, N. J., and Nadel, L. (1984). The medial temporal region and memory consolidation: A new hypothesis. In: Eingartner, H., and Parker, E. (eds.), Memory Consolidation, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 185-210.Google Scholar
  257. Stefanis, N., Frangou, S., Yakeley, J., Sharma, T., O'Connell, P., Morgan, K., et al. (1999). Hippocampal volume reduction in schizophrenia: Effects of genetic risk and pregnancy and birth complications. Biol. Psychiatry 46: 697-702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Stein, R. A., and Strickland, T. L. (1998). A review of the neuropsychological effects of commonly used prescription medication. Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 13: 259-284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Stip, E., and Lussier, I. (1996). The effect of risperidone on cognition in patients with schizophrenia. Can. J. Psychiatry 41 (Suppl. 2): S35-S40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Stirling, J. D., Hellewell, J. S. E., and Hewitt, J. (1997). Verbal memory impairment in schizophrenia: No sparing of short-term recall. Schizophr. Res. 25: 85-95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Stolar, N., Berenbaum, H., Banich, M. T., and Barch, D. (1994). Neuropsychological correlates of alogia and affective flattening in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 35: 164-172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Stone, M., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Stebbins, G. T., and Sullivan, E. V. (1999a). Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology 12: 278-288.Google Scholar
  263. Stone, W. S., Seidman, L. J., Wojcik, J., and Green, A. I. (1999b). Glucose effects in schizophrenia. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, abstract number 830.4, Vol. 25, p. 2074.Google Scholar
  264. Suddath, R. L., Christison, G. W., Torrey, E. F., Casanova, M. F., and Weinberger, D. R. (1990). Anatomical abnormalities in the brains of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. N. Engl. J. Med. 322: 789-794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Sullivan, E. V., Shear, P. K., Zipursky, R. B., Sagar, H. J., and Pfefferbaum, A. (1994). A deficit profile of executive, memory, and motor functions in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 36: 641-653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Sweeney, J. A., Haas, G. L., Keilp, J. G., and Long, M. (1991). Evaluation of the stability of neuropsychological functioning after acute episodes of schizophrenia: One-year follow-up study. Psychiatry Res. 38: 63-76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Tamlyn, D., McKenna, P. J., Mortimer, A. M., Lund, C. E., Hammond, S., and Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Memory impairment in schizophrenia: Its extent affiliations and neuropsychological character. Psychol. Med. 22: 101-115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Tiplady, B., Harding, C., McLean, D., Ortner, C., Porter, K., and Wright, P. (1999). Effects of ethanol and temazepam on episodic and semantic memory:Adose-response comparison. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 14: 263-269.Google Scholar
  269. Toomey, R., Kremen, W. S., Simpson, J. C., Samson, J. A., Seidman, L. J., Lyons, M. J., et al. (1997). Revisiting the factor structure for positive and negative symptoms: Evidence from a large heterogeneous group of psychiatric patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 154: 371-377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Traupmann, K. L. (1975). Effects of categorization and imagery on recognition and recall by process and reactive individuals with schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 84: 307-314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Traupmann, K. L. (1980). Encoding processes and memory for categorically related words by schizophrenic patients. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 89: 704-716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Tsuang, M. T. (1982). Memory deficit and long-term outcome in schizophrenia: A preliminary study. Psychiatry Res. 6: 355-360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Tsuang, M. T., Stone, W. S., and Faraone, S. V. (1999). Schizophrenia: A review of genetic studies. Harv. Rev. Psychiatry 7: 185-207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Tulving, E. (1962). Subjective organization in free recall of "unrelated" words. Psychol. Rev. 69: 344-354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Tulving, E., and Markowitsch, H. J. (1998). Episodic and declarative memory: Role of the hippocampus. Hippocampus 8: 198-204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Tune, L. E., Strauss, M. E., Lew, M. F., Breitlinger, E., and Coyle, J. T. (1982). Serum levels of anticholinergic drugs and impaired recent memory in chronic schizophrenic patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 139: 1460-1465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Vargha-Khadem, F., Gadian, D. G., Watkins, K. E., Conneley, A., Van Paesschen, W., and Mishkin, M. (1997). Differential aspects of early hippocampal pathology on episodic and semantic memory. Science 277: 376-380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Vinogradov, S., Willis-Shore, J., Poole, J. H., Marten, E., Ober, B. A., and Shenaut, G. K. (1997). Clinical and neurocognitive aspects of source monitoring errors in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 154: 1530-1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Wagner, A. D. (1999). Working memory contributions to human learning and remembering. Neuron 22: 19-22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Wagner, A. D., Schacter, D. L., Rotte, M., Koutstaal, W., Maril, A., Dale, A., et al. (1998). Building memories: Remembering and forgetting of verbal experiences as predicted by brain activity. Science 281: 1188-1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Wechsler, D. (1955). WAIS Manual, The Psychological Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  282. Wechsler, D. (1981). WAIS-R Manual, The Psychological Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  283. Weinberger, D. R. (1999). Cell biology of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 45: 395-402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Weinberger, D. R., Berman, K. F., Suddath, R., and Torrey, E. F. (1992). Evidence of dysfunction of a prefrontal-limbic network in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 149: 890-897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Wheeler, M. A., Stuss, D.T., and Tulving, E. (1995). Frontal lobe damage produces episodic memory impairment. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 1: 525-536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Wright, I. C., Rabe-Hesketh, S., Woodruff, P.W. R., David, A. S., Murray, R. M., and Bullmore, E. T. (2000). Meta-analysis of regional brain volumes in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 157: 16-25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Yesavage, J. A., Portnoff, L. A., and Rode, T. L. (1983). Auditory versus memory deficits in paranoid and chronic undifferentiated individuals with schizophrenia. J. Psychiatr. Treat. Eval. 5: 309-314.Google Scholar
  288. Zakzanis, K. K. (1998). Neuropsychological correlates of positive vs. negative schizophrenic symptomatology. Schizophr. Res. 29: 227-233.Google Scholar
  289. Zihl, J., Gron, G., and Brunnauer, A. (1998). Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and affective disorders: Evidence for a final common pathway disorder. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 97: 351-357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Zornberg, G. L., Buka, S. L., and Tsuang, M. T. (2000). Hypoxic-ischemia-related fetal/neonatal complications and risk of schizophrenia and other nonaffective psychoses: A 19-year longitudinal study. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 157: 196-202.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryHarvard Medical SchoolBoston

Personalised recommendations