Advertisement

Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 81–91 | Cite as

The History of Surface Electromyography

  • Jeffrey R. Cram
Article

Abstract

The history of muscle pain and dysfunction is viewed through the lens of a four factor theory of histologic (tissue related) issues, psychologic (emotional) issues, sensory motor (movement) issues, and biomechanical (postural) issues. The historical antecedents of surface electromyography are reviewed.

surface EMG SEMG trigger points posture emotions movement 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Alexander, B., & Smith, D. D. (1979). Clinical applications of EMG biofeedback. In R. J. Gatchel & K. R. Price (Eds.), Clinical applications of biofeedback: Appraisal and status (pp. 112-133). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  2. Basmajian, J. V. (1962). Muscles alive. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  3. Basmajian, J. V. (1963). Control and training of individual motor units. Science, 141, 440-441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Basmajian, J. V., & Blumenstein, R. (1989). Electrode placement in electromyographic biofeedback. In J. V. Basmajian (Ed.), Biofeedback: Principles and practice for clinicians. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  5. Basmajian, J. V., & DeLuca, C. (1983). Muscles alive. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  6. Booker, H. E., Rubow, R. T., & Coleman, P. J. (1969). Simplified feedback in neuromuscular retraining: An automated approach using EMG signals. Achives of Physical Medicine, 50, 621-625.Google Scholar
  7. Brucker, B., & Bulaeva, N. V. (1996). Biofeedback effect on electromyography responses in patients with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 133-137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Budzynski, T., Stoyva, J., & Adler, C. (1970). Feedback-induced muscle relaxation: Application to tension headache. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1, 205-211.Google Scholar
  9. Cacioppo, J. T., Tassinary, G., & Fridlund, A. J. (1990). The skeletomotor system. In J. T. Cacioppo & G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cahn, T., & Cram, J. R. (1990). Muscle scanning: Support for the back. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70, 851-857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, J. T., Chen, S. M., Kuan, T. S., Chung, K. C., & Hong, C. Z. (1998). Phentolamine effect on the spontaneous electrical activity of active loci in the myofascial trigger spot of rabbit. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79, 790-794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cram, J. R. (Ed). (1990). Clinical EMG for surface recordings, (Vol. 2). Nevada City, CA: Clinical Resources.Google Scholar
  13. Cram, J. R., & Engstrom, D. (1986). Patterns of neuromuscular activity in pain and non-pain patients. Clinical Biofeedback and Health, 9, 106-116.Google Scholar
  14. Cram, J. R., & Kasman, G. (1998). Introduction to surface EMG. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.Google Scholar
  15. Darwin, C. (1872). The expression of emotion in man and animals. London: Murray. Republished New York: Appleton and Company (1986).Google Scholar
  16. Davis, R. C. (1939). Patterns of muscular activity during “mental work” and their constancy. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 24, 451-465.Google Scholar
  17. Davis, R. C. (1952). Manual of surface EMG laboratory for psychological studies. Montreal, Canada: Allen Memorial Institute of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  18. DeLuca, C. J. (1977). The use of surface electromyography in biomechanics. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 13, 53-66.Google Scholar
  19. DeLuca, C. J. (1984). Myoelectric manifestations of localized muscular fatigue in humans. CRC. Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, 11, 251.Google Scholar
  20. Dolce, J. J., & Raczynski, J. M. (1985). Neuromuscular activity and electromyography in painful backs: Psychological and biomechanical models in assessment and treatment. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 502-520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Donaldson, S., & Donaldson, M. (1990). Multi-channel EMG assessment and treatment techniques. In J. R. Cram (Ed.), Clinical EMG for surface recordings (Vol. 2). Nevada City, CA: Clinical Resources.Google Scholar
  22. Donaldson, C. C. S., Skubick, D., Clasby, R., & Cram, J. R. (1994). The evaluation of trigger point activity using dynamic EMG techniques. American Journal of Pain Management, 4, 118-122.Google Scholar
  23. Duchenne, G.B. (1959). The physiology of motion: Demonstrated by means of electrical stimulation in clinical observations and applied to the study of paralysis and deformaties. (E. Kaplan, Trans. and Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott. (Origninal work published 1867).Google Scholar
  24. Fishbain, D. A., Goldberg, M., Magher, B. R., Steel, R., & Rosomoff, H. (1986). Male and female chronic pain patients categorized by DSMII psychiatric diagnostic criteria. Pain, 26, 181-197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Floyd, W. F., & Silver, P. (1955). The function of the erector spinae muscles in certain movements and postures in man. Journal of Physiology, 129, 184-203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldstein, I. B. (1972). Electromyography: A measure of skeletal response. In N. S. Greenfield & R. A. Sternbach. (Eds.) Handbook of psychophysiology (pp. 329-366). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  27. Green, E. E., Walters, E. D., Green, A., & Murphy, G. (1969). Feedback techniques for deep relaxation. Psychophysiology, 6, 371-377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hagberg, M. (1981). Muscular endurance and surface EMG in isometric and dynamic exercise. Archives of Physical Medicine, 60, 111-121.Google Scholar
  29. Hagg, G. M. (1991). Static work load and occupational myalgia: A new explanation model. In P. Anderson, D. Hobart, & J. Danoff (Eds.), Electromyographical kinesiology (pp. 141-144). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  30. Hagg, G. M., & Astrom, A. (1997). Load pattern and pressure pain threshold in the upper trapezius muscle and psychosocial factors in medical secretaries with and without shoulder /neck disorders. International Archives of Occupational and Enviornmental Health, 69, 423-432.Google Scholar
  31. Haig, A. J., Geblumj, J. B., Rechtien, J. J., & Gitter, A. J. (1996). Technology assessment: The use of surface EMG in the diagnosis and treatment of nerve and muscle disorders. Muscle and Nerve, 19, 392-395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hardyck, C. D., Petrincovich, L. V., & Ellsworth, D. W. (1966). Feedback of speech muscle activity during silent reading: Rapid extension. Science, 154, 1467-1468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hermens, H., & Freriks, B. (Eds.). (1997). SENIAM: The state of the art on sensors and sensor placement procedures for SEMG. Enschede, The Netherlands: Roessingh Research and Development.Google Scholar
  34. Hermens, H., Freriks, B., Merletti, R., Stegeman, D., Joleen, B., Gner, R., et al. (1999). SENIAM: European recommendations for surface electromyography. Enschede, The Netherlands: Roessingh Research and Development.Google Scholar
  35. Hong, C. Z., & Simons, D. (1998). Pathophysiologic and electrophysiologic mechanisms of myofascial trigger points. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabiliation, 79, 863-872.Google Scholar
  36. Hubbard, D. (1996). Chronic and recurrent muscle pain: Pathophysiology and treatment, and review of pharmacologic studies. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 4, 123-43.Google Scholar
  37. Hubbard, D., & Berkoff, G. (1993). Myofascial trigger points show spontaneous needle EMG activity. Spine, 18, 1803-1807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Inman, V. T., Saunders, J. B., & Abbot, L. C. (1944). Observations on the function of the shoulder joint. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 26, 1-30.Google Scholar
  39. Jacobson, E. (1927). Action currents from muscular contractions during conscious processes. Science, 66, 403.Google Scholar
  40. Jacobson, E. (1930). Electrical measurements of neuromuscular states during mental activities: I. Imagination of movement involving skeletal muscles. American Journal of Physiology, 91, 567-608.Google Scholar
  41. Jacobson, E. (1931). Electrical measurements of neuromuscular states during mental activities: V. Variation of specific muscles contracting during imagination. American Journal of Physiology, 96, 115-121.Google Scholar
  42. Jacobson, E. (1976). You must relax. New York: McGraw-Hill. (First published 1934).Google Scholar
  43. James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, H. E., & Garton, W. H. (1973). Muscle re-education in hemiplegia by use of electromyographic device. Archives of Physical Medicine, 54, 320-322.Google Scholar
  45. Jonsson, B. (1978). Kinesiology: With special reference to electromyographic kinesiology. Clinical Neurophysiology EEG Supplement, 34, 417-428.Google Scholar
  46. Kadefors, R., Lindstrom, L., Petersen, I., & Ortengren, R. (1978). EMG in objective evaluation of localized muscle fatigue. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilition Medicine Supplement, 6, 75-93.Google Scholar
  47. Kasman, G., Cram, J. R., & Wolf, S. (1998). Clinical applications in SEMG. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.Google Scholar
  48. Kelly, M. (1945). The nature of fibrositis: 1. The myalgic lesion and its secondary effects: A reflex theory. Annals of Rheumatic Disease, 5, 1-7.Google Scholar
  49. Kendall, F. F. P., Kendall, E., & McCreary, B. A. (1993). Muscle testing and function (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  50. Lewit, K. (1991). Manipulative therapy in rehabilitation of the locomotor system. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.Google Scholar
  51. Luthe, W. (Ed.). (1969). Autogenics therapy. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  52. Malmo, R. B., Shagass, C., & Davis, F. H. (1950). A physiological study of somatic symptom mechanisms in psychiatric patients. Research Publications of the Association for Nervous and Mental Disease, 29, 23-261.Google Scholar
  53. Martin, I. (1956). Levels of muscle activity in psychiatric patients. Acta Psychologica, 12, 326-341.Google Scholar
  54. Masuda, K., Masuda, T., Sadoyama, T., Inaki, M., & Katsuta, S. (1999). Changes in surface EMG parameters during static and dynamic fatiguing contractions. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 9, 39-46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mathiassen, S. E., Winkel, J., & Hagg, G. M. (1995). Normalization of surface EMG amplitude from the upper trapezius muscle in ergonomic studies: A review. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 5, 197-226.Google Scholar
  56. McNulty, W., Gevertz, R., Berkoff, G., & Hubbard, D. (1994). Needle EMG evaluation of a trigger point response to a psychological stressor. Psychophysiology, 31, 313-316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Merletti, R., & Hermens, H. (2000). Introduction to the special issue on the SENIAM European concerted action. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 10, 283-286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Merletti, R., & Parker, P. (in press). Electromyography: Physiology, engineering and non-invasive applications. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press.Google Scholar
  59. Middaugh, S. J., Kee, W. G., & Nicholson, J. A. (1994). Muscle overuse and posture as factors in the development and maintenance of chronic musculoskeletal pain. In R. C. Grzesiak & D. S. Ciccone (Eds.), Psychological vulnerability to chronic pain. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  60. Moreland, J. D., Thomson, M. A., & Fuoco, A. R. (1998). Electromyographic biofeedback to improve lower extremity function after stroke: A meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79, 134-140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Passatore, M., Grassi, C., & Filippi, G. (1985). Sympathetically induced development of tension in jaw muscles: The possible contraction of intrafusal muscle fibers. Pflugers Archives, 405, 297-304.Google Scholar
  62. Price, J. P., Clare, M. H., & Ewerhardt, R. H. (1948). Studies in low backache with persistent spasm. Achives of Physical Medicine, 29, 703-709.Google Scholar
  63. Pullman, S. L., Goodin, D. S., Marquinez, A. I., Tabbal, S., & Rubin, M. (2000). Clinical utility of surface EMG. Neurology, 55, 171-177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Roy, S. H., DeLuca, C. J., & Cassovant, D. A. (1989). Lumbar muscle fatigue and chronic back pain. Spine, 14, 992-1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Sella, G. (1995). Neuro-muscular testing with surface EMG. Martins Ferry, OH: GENMED Publishing.Google Scholar
  66. Sherman, R., & Arena, J. (1993). Biofeedback for assessment and treatment of low back pain. In J. Basmajian & R. Nyberg (Eds.), Rational manual therapies. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  67. Simons, D. G. (1975). Muscle pain syndromes-Part I. American Journal of Physical Medecine, 54, 289-311.Google Scholar
  68. Simons, D. G. (1976). Muscle pain syndromes-Part II. American Journal of Physical Medecine, 55, 15-42.Google Scholar
  69. Simons, D. G., & Dexter, J. R. (1995). Comparison of local twitch responses elicited by palpation and needling of myofascial trigger points. Journal of Musculoskelotal Pain, 3, 49-61.Google Scholar
  70. Soderberg, G. L. (Ed). (1992). Selected topics in surface electromyography for use in the occupational setting: Expert perspective. Washington, DC: NIOSH. (DHHS, publication no. 91-100).Google Scholar
  71. Suarez, A., Kohlenberg, R. J., & Pagano, R. R. (1979). Is EMG activity from the frontalis site a good measure of general bodily tension in clinical populations? Biofeedback and Self Regulation, 4, 293.Google Scholar
  72. Thompson, J. G. (1988). The psychobiology of emotions. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  73. Travell, J. (1976). Myofascial trigger points: Clinical view. In J. J. Bonica & D. Albe-Fessard (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy (Vol. 1, pp. 919-926). New York: Raven press.Google Scholar
  74. Travell, J., Rinzler, S, & Herman, M. 1942). Pain and disability of the shoulder and arm: Treatment by intramuscular infiltration with procaine hydrochloride. JAMA, 120, 417-422.Google Scholar
  75. Travell, J., & Simons, D. (1983). Myofascial pain and dysfunction: A trigger point manual. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  76. Veiersted, K. B., Westgaard, R. H., & Andersen, P. (1993). Electromyographic evaluation of muscular work pattern as a predictor of trapezius myalgia. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 19, 284-290.Google Scholar
  77. Westgaard, R. H., & Bjorklund, R. (1987). Generation of muscle tension additional to postural muscle load. Ergonomics, 39, 911-923.Google Scholar
  78. Whatmore, G., & Ellis, R. M. (1958). Some motor aspects of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 882-889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Whatmore, G., & Ellis, R.M. (1959). Some neurophysiologic aspects of depressed states. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1, 70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Whatmore, G., & Kohli, D. (1974). The physiopathology and treatment of functional disorders. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  81. Wolf, S., & Basmajian, J. V. (1978). Assessment of paraspinal electromyographic activity in normal subjects and chronic back pain patients using a muscle biofeedback device. In E. Asmussen & K. Jorgensen (Eds.), International series on biomechanics (Vol. 6b). Baltimore: University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Wolf, S., Nacht, M., & Kelly, J. (1982). EMG feedback training during dynamic movement for low back pain patients. Behaviorol Therapy, 13, 395-406.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey R. Cram
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Resources and Sierra Health InstituteNevada City

Personalised recommendations