Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 81–91 | Cite as

The History of Surface Electromyography

  • Jeffrey R. Cram


The history of muscle pain and dysfunction is viewed through the lens of a four factor theory of histologic (tissue related) issues, psychologic (emotional) issues, sensory motor (movement) issues, and biomechanical (postural) issues. The historical antecedents of surface electromyography are reviewed.

surface EMG SEMG trigger points posture emotions movement 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey R. Cram
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Resources and Sierra Health InstituteNevada City

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