Advertisement

Attachment-Based Family Therapy for Depressed Adolescents: Programmatic Treatment Development

  • Guy Diamond
  • Lynne Siqueland
  • Gary M. Diamond
Article

Abstract

Few effective psychosocial treatment models for depressed adolescents have been developed, let alone ones that use the developmentally potent context of the family as the focus of intervention. Attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) is a brief, manualized treatment model tailored to the specific needs of depressed adolescents and their families. Attachment theory serves as the main theoretical framework to guide the process of repairing relational ruptures and rebuilding trustworthy relationships. Empirically supported risk factors for depression are the primary problem states that therapists target with specific treatment strategies or tasks. Parent problem states include criticism/hostility, personal distress, parenting skills, and disengagement. Adolescent problem states include motivation, negative self-concept, poor affect regulation, and disengagement. Intervention tasks include relational reframing, building alliances with the adolescent and with the parent, addressing attachment failures, and building competency. A small, randomized clinical trial provides initial support for the model. Several process research studies, using both qualitative and quantitative methods, have helped refine the clinical guidelines for each treatment task. ABFT is a promising new treatment for depressed adolescents and more research on it is warranted.

adolescence depression family therapy attachment treatment manual 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1989). Attachment beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, P. C. (1993). Application of attachment theory to the study of sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 185-195.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, J. P., Hauser, S. T., & Borman-Spurrell, E. (1996). Attachment theory as a framework for understanding sequelae of severe adolescent psychopathology: An 11-year follow-up study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 254-263.Google Scholar
  5. Allen, J. P., & Land, D. (1999). Attachment in adolescence. In J. Cassidy and P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications(pp. 319-335). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Altmann, E. O., & Gotlib, I. H. (1988). The social behavior of depressed children: An observational study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 29-44.Google Scholar
  7. Amanat, E., & Butler, C. (1984). Oppressive behaviors in the families of depressed children. Family Therapy, 11(1), 65-77.Google Scholar
  8. Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Relationships to well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.Google Scholar
  9. Asarnow, J. R., Carlson, G. A., & Guthrie, D. (1987). Coping strategies, self-perceptions, hopelessness, and perceived family environments in depressed and suicidal children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 361-366.Google Scholar
  10. Asarnow, J. R., Goldstein, M. J., Tompson, M., & Guthrie, D. (1993). One-year outcomes of depressive disorders in child psychiatric in-patients: Evaluation of the prognostic power of a brief measure of expressed emotion. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 129-137.Google Scholar
  11. Barber, B. K. (Ed.). (2002). How psychological control affects children and adolescents. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  12. Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226-244.Google Scholar
  13. Baumrind, D. (1987) Developmental perspectives on adolescent risk-taking in contemporary America. In C. E. Irwin (Ed.), Adolescent social behavior and health(pp. 93-125). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competency and substance abuse. Journal of Adolescence, 11, 56-95.Google Scholar
  15. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  16. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  17. Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83-96.Google Scholar
  18. Benjamin, L. S. (1974). Structural analysis of social behavior. Psychological Review, 81(5), 392-425.Google Scholar
  19. Benjamin, L. S. (1984). Principles of prediction using structural analysis of social behavior. In R. A. Zucker, J. Aronoff, & A. J. Rabin (Eds.), Personality and the prediction of behavior(pp. 121-173). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Kolko, D., Baugher, M., Bridge, J., Holder, D., et al., (2000). Clinical outcome after short-term psychotherapy for adolescents with major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(1), 29-36.Google Scholar
  21. Birmaher, B., Ryan, N., Williamson, D., Brent, D., & Kaufman, J. (1996). Childhood and adolescent depression: A review of the past 10 years, Part I. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(11), 1427-1439.Google Scholar
  22. Bordin, E. S. (1979). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 16, 252-260.Google Scholar
  23. Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., & Krasner, B. R. (1986). Trust-based therapy: A contextual approach. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 767-775.Google Scholar
  24. Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., & Sparks, G. M. (1984). Invisible loyalties. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  25. Bowlby, J. (1969). Disruption of affectional bonds and its effects on behavior. Canada's Mental Health Supplement, 59, 12.Google Scholar
  26. Bowlby, J. A. (1988). A secure base: Parent–child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  27. Brent, D. A., Holder, D., Kolko, D., Brimaher, B., Baugher, M., Roth, C., et al. (1997). A clinical psychotherapy trial for adolescent depression comparing cognitive, family, and supportive treatments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 877-885.Google Scholar
  28. Brent, D. A., Perper, J. A., Goldstein, C. E., Kolko, D. J., Allen, M.J., Allman, C. J., et al. (1988). Risk factors for adolescent suicide: A comparison of adolescent suicide victims with suicidal inpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 581-588.Google Scholar
  29. Burbach, D. J., & Borduin, C. M. (1986). Parent–child relations and the etiology of depression: A review of methods and findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 6, 133-153.Google Scholar
  30. Cicchetti, D., & Greenberg, M. T. (1991). The legacy of John Bowlby. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 347-350.Google Scholar
  31. Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 53(2), 221-241.Google Scholar
  32. Cicchetti, D., Toth, S. L., & Lynch, M. (1995). Bowlby's dream comes full circle: The application of attachment theory to risk and psychopathology. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 1-75.Google Scholar
  33. Clarke, G. N, Rohde, P., Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., & Seeley, J. R. (1999). Cognitive–behavioral treatment of adolescent depression: Efficacy of acute group treatment and booster sessions. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(3), 272-279.Google Scholar
  34. Cole, D. A. (1990). Relation of social and academic competency to depressive symptoms in childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99(4), 422-429.Google Scholar
  35. Cole, D. A., & Rehm, L. P. (1986). Family interaction patterns and childhood depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 297-314.Google Scholar
  36. Cole-Detke, H., & Kobak, R. (1996). Attachment processes in eating disorder and depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 282-290.Google Scholar
  37. Coyne, J. C. (1976). Toward an interactional description of depression. Psychiatry, 39, 28-40.Google Scholar
  38. Coyne, J. C., Downey, G., & Boergers, J. (1990). Depression in families: A systems perspective. In D. Cicchetti & S. Toth (Eds.), Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology Vol. 4. Developmental approaches to the affective disorders(pp. 211-249). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  39. Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. (1994). Children and marital conflict. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  40. Dadds, M. R., Schwartz, S., & Schwartz, M. R. (1987). Marital discord and treatment outcome in behavioral treatment of child conduct disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 396-403.Google Scholar
  41. Derogatis, L. R., & Melisaratos, N. (1983). The Brief Symptom Inventory: An introductory report. Psychological Medicine, 13(3), 595-605.Google Scholar
  42. Diamond, G. S., & Diamond, G. M. (1999). Studying mechanisms of change: A process research agenda for family-based treatments. In H. Liddle, R. Leant, & J. Bray (Eds.), Family psychology intervention science(pp. 41-65). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  43. Diamond, G. M., Diamond, G. S. & Liddle, H. A. (2000). The therapist–parent alliance in relationally based family therapy for adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 6(8), 1037-1050.Google Scholar
  44. Diamond, G. M., Hogue, A., Diamond, G. S., & Siqueland, L. (1998). Therapist behavior rating scale for attachment based family therapy. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  45. Diamond, G. S., & Liddle, H. A. (1996). Resolving therapeutic impasses between parents and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 481-488.Google Scholar
  46. Diamond, G. S., & Liddle, H. A. (1999). Transforming negative parent–adolescent interactions in family therapy: From impasse to dialogue. Family Process, 38, 5-26.Google Scholar
  47. Diamond, G. M., Liddle, H. A., Hogue, A., & Dakof, G. A. (1998). Therapist alliance building techniques with adolescents in multidimensional family therapy. Paper presented at the 1998 Meeting of the North American Society for Psychotherapy Research, Santa Fe, NM.Google Scholar
  48. Diamond, G. M., Moed, H., Diamond, G. S., & Shelef, K. Building alliances with parents in family therapy: A task analytic study. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  49. Diamond, G. S., Reis, B., Diamond, G. M., Siqueland, L., & Isaacs, L. (2002). Attachment based family therapy for depressed adolescents: A treatment development study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1190-1196.Google Scholar
  50. Diamond, G. S., & Siqueland, L. (1998). Emotions, attachment and the relational reframe. Journal of Structural and Strategic Therapy, 17, 36-50.Google Scholar
  51. Diamond, G. S., & Stern, R. (2003). Attachment based family therapy for depressed adolescents: Repairing attachment by addressing attachment failures. In Johnson, S. (Ed.), Attachment: A family systems perspective. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  52. Doane, J. A., West, K. L., Goldstein, M. J., Rodnick, E. H., & Jones, J. E. (1981). Parental affective style and communication deviance as predictors of subsequent schizophrenia spectrum disorders in vulnerable adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 679-685.Google Scholar
  53. Donenberg, G. R., & Weisz, J. R. (1998). Guilt and abnormal aspects of parent–child interactions. In J. Bybee, (Ed.), Guilt and children(pp. 245-267). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  54. Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C. (1990). Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 50-76.Google Scholar
  55. Egeland, B., Jacobvitz, D., & Sroufe, L. A. (1988). Breaking the cycle of abuse. Child Development, 59(4), 1080-1088.Google Scholar
  56. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Murphy, B. C. (1996). Parents' reactions to children's negative emotions: Relations to children's social competence and comforting behavior. Child Development, 67(5), 2227-2247.Google Scholar
  57. Elliot, R. (1984). A discovery-oriented approach to significant change events in psychotherapy: Interpersonal process recall and comprehensive process analysis. In L. A. Rice & L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), Patterns of change(pp. 249-286). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  58. Emslie, G. J., Heiligenstein, J. H., Wagner, K. D., Hoog, S. L., Ernest, D. E., Brown, E., et al. (2002). Fluoxetine for acute treatment of depression in children and adolescents: A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(10), 1205-1215.Google Scholar
  59. Emslie, G. J., Rush, J., Weinberg, W. A., Kowatch, R. A., Hughes, C. W., Carmody, T., et al. (1997). A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in children and adolescents with depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(11), 1031-1037.Google Scholar
  60. Emslie, G. J., Walkup, J. T., Pliszka, S. R., & Ernst, M. (1999). Nontricyclic antidepressants: Current trends in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(5), 517-528.Google Scholar
  61. Enright, R. D., and Santos, M. J., & Al-Mabuk, R. (1989). The adolescent as forgiver. Journal of Adolescence, 12(1), 95-110.Google Scholar
  62. Faber, A., & Mazlish, E. (1980). How to talk so kids will listen and listen so kids will talk. New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
  63. Feather, N. J. (1983). Causal attributions and beliefs about work and unemployment among adolescents in state and independent secondary schools. Australian Journal of Psychology, 35, 211-232.Google Scholar
  64. Fendrich, M., Warner, V., & Weissman, M. M. (1990). Family risk factors, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring. Developmental Psychology, 26, 40-50.Google Scholar
  65. Fincham, F. D., & Bradbury, T. N. (1988). The impact of attributions in marriage: Empirical and conceptual foundations. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 77-90.Google Scholar
  66. Friedlander, M. L., & Heatherington, L. (1998). Assessing clients' constructions of their problems in family therapy discourse. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 24(3), 289-303.Google Scholar
  67. Gallimore, M., & Kurdek, L. A. (1992). Parent depression and parent authoritative discipline as correlates of young adolescents' depression. Journal of Early Adolescence, 12(2), 187-196.Google Scholar
  68. Garber, J., Keiley, M. K., & Martin, N. C. (2002). Developmental trajectories of adolescent's depressive symptoms: Predictors of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(1), 79-95.Google Scholar
  69. Gardner, R., & Price, J. S. (1999). Sociophysiology and depression. In T. Joiner and J. C. Coyne (Eds.), The interactional nature of depression(pp. 247-268). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  70. Gilboa, E., & Gotlib, I. H. (1997). Cognitive biases and affect persistence in previously dysphoric and never-dysphoric individuals. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 517-538.Google Scholar
  71. Gladstone, T. R., & Beardslee, W. R. (2002). Treatment, intervention, and prevention with children of depressed parents: A developmental perspective. In S. H. Goodman & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of Depressed Parents: Mechanism of risk & implications for treatment(pp. 277-306). American Psychological Association: Washington DC.Google Scholar
  72. Goodman, S. H. & Brumley, H. E. (1990). Schizophrenic and depressed mothers: Relational deficits in parenting. Developmental Psychology, 26(1), 31-39.Google Scholar
  73. Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (Eds.). (2002). Children of depressed parents. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  74. Goodyer, I. M., Herbert, J., Tamplin, A., Secher, S. M., & Pearson, J. (1997). Short-term outcome of major depression: II. Life events, family dysfunction, and friendship difficulties as predictors of persistent disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(4), 474-480.Google Scholar
  75. Gordon, K. C., & Baucom, D. H. (1998). Understanding betrayals in marriage: A synthesized model of forgiveness. Family Process, 37(4), 425-449.Google Scholar
  76. Gotlib, I., & Hammen, C. (1992). Psychological aspects of depression: Towards a cognitive-interpersonal integration. Winchester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  77. Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1996). Parental meta-emotion philosophy and the emotional life of families: Theoretical models and preliminary data. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(3), 243-268.Google Scholar
  78. Greenberg, L. S., & Johnson, S. M. (1988). Emotionally focused therapy for couples. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  79. Greenberg, L. S., & Pinsoff, W. M. (1996). The psychotherapeutic process: A research handbook. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  80. Greenberg, M., & Safran, J. D. (1987). Emotion in psychotherapy: Affect, cognition, and the process of change. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  81. Greenberg, M., Siegel, J., & Leitch, C. J. (1983). The nature and importance of attachment relationships of parents and peers during adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 12, 373-386.Google Scholar
  82. Grotevant, H. D., & Cooper, C. R. (Eds.). (1993). Adolescent development in the family. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  83. Haley, J. (1987). Problem solving therapy. San Francisco: Josey-BassGoogle Scholar
  84. Hamilton, M. A. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 56-62.Google Scholar
  85. Hamilton, E. B., Asarnov, J. R., & Tompson, M. C. (1999). Family interaction styles of children with depressive disorders. Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and normal controls. Family Process, 38, 463-476.Google Scholar
  86. Hammen, C., Burge, D., & Stansbury, K. (1990). Relationship of mother and child variables to child outcomes in a high-risk sample: A causal modeling analysis. Developmental Psychology, 26, 24-30.Google Scholar
  87. Hammen, C., Rudolph, K., Weisz, J., Rao, U., & Burge, D. (1999). The context of depression in clinic-referred youth: Neglected areas in treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(1), 64-71.Google Scholar
  88. Hargrave, T. D., & Sells, J. N. (1997). The development of a forgiveness scale. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 23(1), 41-63.Google Scholar
  89. Harrington, R., Fudge, H., Rutter, M., Pickles, A., & Hill, J. (1990). Adult outcomes of childhood and adolescent depression: I. Psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 465-473.Google Scholar
  90. Harris, T., Brown, G., & Bifulco, A. (1986). Loss of parent in childhood and adult psychiatric disorder: The lack of adequate parental care. Psychological Medicine, 16, 641-659.Google Scholar
  91. Harter, S. (1990). Causes, correlates and the functional role of global self-worth: A life-span perspective. In R. Sternberg and J. Kolligian (Eds.), Competence considered(pp. 67-97). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Hartley, D. E., & Strupp, H. H. (1983). The therapeutic alliance: Its relationship to outcome in brief psychotherapy. In J. Masling (Ed.), Empirical studies of psychoanalytic theories, (Vol. 1, pp. 1-38). Hillsdale, NJ: Analytical Press.Google Scholar
  93. Herman, J. L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  94. Hetherington, E. M., & Martin, B. (1986). Family factors and psychopathology in children. In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (3rd ed). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  95. Hibbs, E. D., Hamburger, S. D., Lenane, M., Rapoport, J., Krusi, M. J. P., Keysor, C. S., & Goldstein, M. J. (1991). Determinations of expressed emotion in families of disturbed and normal children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 32, 757-770.Google Scholar
  96. Hogue, A., Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C., Turner, R. M., Dakof, G. A., & LaPann, K. (1998). Treatment adherence and differentiation in individual versus family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(1), 104-114.Google Scholar
  97. Holmbeck, G. N. (1996). A model of famly relational transformations during the transition to adolescence: Parent–adolescent conflict and adaptation. In J. A. Graber, J. Brooks-Gunn, & A.C. Peterson (Eds.), Transitions through adolescence: Interpersonal domains and context(pp. 167-199). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  98. Hooley, J. M., Orley, J., & Teasdale, J. (1986). Levels of expressed emotion and relapse in depressed patients. British Psychiatry, 148, 642-647.Google Scholar
  99. Jack, D. C. (1999). Silencing the self: Inner dialogues and outer realities. In T. Joiner & J. C. Coyne (Eds.), The interactional nature of depression(pp. 221-246). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  100. Jaenicke, C., Hammen, C., Zupan, B., Hiroto, D., Gordon, D., Adrian, C., et al. (1987). Cognitive vulnerability in children at risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15(4), 559-572.Google Scholar
  101. Johnson, S. M., Makinen, J. A., & Millikin, J. W. (2001). Attachment injuries in couple relationships: A new perspective on impasses in couples therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 27(2), 145-155.Google Scholar
  102. Joiner, T., & Coyne, J. C. (1999). The interactional nature of depression. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  103. Kaslow, N. J., Deering, C. G., & Ash, P. (1996). Relational diagnosis of children and adolescent depression. In F. Kaslow (Ed.), Handbook of relational diagnosis and dysfunctional family patterns(pp. 177-185). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  104. Kaslow, N. J., Rehm, L. P., & Siegel, A. W. (1984). Social–cognitive and cognitive correlates of depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 605-620.Google Scholar
  105. Kaslow, N. J., & Thompson, M.P. (1998). Applying the criteria for empirically supported treatments to studies of psychosocial interventions for child and adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 146-155.Google Scholar
  106. Kazdin, A. E. (1991). Effectiveness of psychotherapy with children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 785-798.Google Scholar
  107. Kazdin, A. E. (1997). A model for developing effective treatments: Progression and interplay of therapy, research, and practice. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 114-129.Google Scholar
  108. Keitner, G. I., Miller, I. W., Epstein, A. E., Bishop, D. S., & Fruzzeti, A. E. (1987). Family functioning and the course of major depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 28, 54-64.Google Scholar
  109. Keller, N. B., Ryan, N. D., Strober, M., Klein, R. G., Kutcher, S. P., Birmaher, B., et al. (2001). Efficacy of proxetine in the treatment of adolescent major depression: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 762-772.Google Scholar
  110. Klein, M. H., Mathieu, P. L., Gendlin, E. T., & Kiesler, D. J. (1969). The experiencing scale(Vol. 1). Madison, WI: Wisconsin Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  111. Klein, M. H., Mathieu-Coughlan, P. L., & Kiesler, D. J. (1986). The Experiencing Scales. In L. S. Greenberg & W. M. Pinsof (Eds.), The psychotherapeutic process: A research handbook(pp. 21-71). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  112. Klerman, G. L., Weissman, M. M., Roundsaville, B. J., & Chevron, E. S. (1983). Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  113. Kobak, R., & Duemmler, S. (1994). Attachment and conversation: Toward a discourse analysis of adolescent and adult security. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman (Eds.), Attachment processes in adulthood: Advances in personal relationships(Vol. 5, pp. 121-149). Bristol, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  114. Kobak, R., & Sceery, A. (1988). Attachment in late adolescence: Working models, affect regulation and representations of self and others. Child Development, 59, 135-146.Google Scholar
  115. Kobak, R., Sudler, N., & Gamble, W. (1991). Attachment and depressive symptoms during adolescence: A developmental pathways analysis. Journal of Developmental and Psychopathology, 3, 461-474.Google Scholar
  116. Koocher, G. P. (1976). A bill of rights for children in psychotherapy. In G. P. Koocher (Ed.), Children's rights and the mental health professions(pp. 23-32). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  117. Kutcher, S., Boulos, C., Ward, B., Marton, P., Simeon, J., & Ferguson, H. (1994). Response to desipramine treatment in adolescent depression: A fixed-dose, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(5), 686-694.Google Scholar
  118. Lefkowitz, M. M., & Tesiny, E. P. (1984). Rejection and depression: Prospective and contemporaneous analyses. Developmental Psychology, 20, 776.Google Scholar
  119. Lewinsohn, P. M., Clark, G. N., Hops, H., & Andrews, J. (1990). Cognitive–behavioral treatment for depressed adolescents. Behavioral Therapy, 21, 385-401.Google Scholar
  120. Lewinsohn, P. M., Clark, G. N., Rhode, P., Hops, H., & Seeley, J. (1996). A course in coping: A cognitive–behavioral approach to the treatment of adolescent depression. In E. D. Hibbs & P. S. Jensen (Eds.), Psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent disorders: Empirically based strategies for clinical practice(pp. 109-135). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  121. Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Andrews, J. A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III-Rdisorders in high school students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(4) 517.Google Scholar
  122. Liddle, H. A. (1999). Theory development in a family-based therapy for adolescents drug abuse. Journal of Clinical and Child Psychology, 28(4), 521-533.Google Scholar
  123. Liddle, H. A., Dakof, G. A., & Diamond, G. (1991). Multidimensional family therapy with adolescent substance abuse. In E. Kaufman & P. Kaufman (Eds.), Family therapy with drug and alcohol abuse(pp. 120-178). Boston: Ally & Bacon.Google Scholar
  124. Liddle, H. A., Dakof, G. A., Parker, K., Diamond, G. S., Barrett, K., & Tejeda, M. (2001). Multidimensional family therapy for adolescent drug abuse: Results of a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Drug and Alcolol Abuse, 27(4), 651-688.Google Scholar
  125. Liddle, H. A., & Diamond, G. S. (1991). Adolescent substance abusers in family therapy: The critical initial phase of treatment. Family Dynamics of Addictions Quarterly, 1, 63-75.Google Scholar
  126. Lindahl, K. M., & Markman, H. J. (1990). Communication and negative affect regulation in the family. In E. A. Blechman (Ed.), Emotions and the family: For better or for worse(pp. 99-115). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  127. Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1991). Patterns of relatedness in maltreated and non maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 207-226.Google Scholar
  128. Luborsky, L. (1984). Principles of psychoanalytic psychotherapy: A manual for supportive expressive treatment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  129. Main, M., & Goldwyn, R. (1988). Adult attachment classification system (version 3.2). Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  130. Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points in attachment theory and research (pp. 66–104), Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (1-2, Serial No. 209).Google Scholar
  131. McCullough, M. E., Pargament, K. I., & Thoresen, C.E. (2000). The psychology of forgiveness: History, conceptual issues, and overview. In M. E. McCullough, K. I. Pargament, & C. E. Thoreson (Eds.), Forgiveness: Theory, research, and practice(pp. 1-14). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  132. Micucci, J. (1998). The adolescent in the family. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  133. Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.Google Scholar
  134. Moran, G., Diamond, G. M., & Diamond, G. S. The relational reframe and changes in clients' problem constructions in attachment-based family therapy. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  135. Mufson, L., Moreau, D., Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Martin, J., & Samoilov, A. (1994). Modification of interpersonal psychotherapy with depressed adolescents (IPT-A): Phase I and II studies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescents Psychiatry, 33(5), 695-705.Google Scholar
  136. Mufson, L., Weissman, M. M., Moreau, D., & Garfinkel, R. (1999). Efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 573-579.Google Scholar
  137. Parker, G. (1983). Parental overprotection: A risk factor in psychosocial development. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  138. Pearson, J. L., Cohn, D. A., Cowan, P. A., & Cowan, C. P. (1994). Earned and continuous-security in adult attachment: Relation to depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 359-373.Google Scholar
  139. Peterson, L., Mullins, L. L., & Ridley-Johnson, R. (1985). Childhood depression: Peer reactions to depression and life stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 13, 597-609.Google Scholar
  140. Powers, S. I., & Welsh, D. P. (1999). Mother–Daughter interactions and adolescent girls' depression. In M. J. Cox & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Conflict and cohesion in families: Causes and consequences(pp. 243-282). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  141. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClimente, C. C. (1982). Transtheoretical therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 19, 276-278.Google Scholar
  142. Puig-Antich, J., Lukens, E., Davies, M., Goetz, D., Brennan-Quattrock, J., & Todak, G. (1985). Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders: II. Interpersonal relationships after sustained recovery from affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 511-517.Google Scholar
  143. Radziszewska, B., Richardson, J. L., Dent, C. W., & Flay, B. R. (1996). Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking and academic achievement: Ethnic, gender, and SES differences. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 19, 289-305.Google Scholar
  144. Rehm, L. P. (1977). A self-control model of depression. Behavior Therapy, 8, 787-804.Google Scholar
  145. Reynolds, W. M., & Coates, K. I. (1986). A comparison of cognitive–behavioral therapy and relaxation training for the treatment of depression in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 653-660.Google Scholar
  146. Rice, L. N., & Greenberg, L. S. (1984). Patterns of change. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  147. Rosenstein, D. S., & Horowitz, H. A. (1996). Adolescent attachment and psychopathology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 244-253.Google Scholar
  148. Rosselló, J., & Bernal, G. (1999). The efficacy of cognitive–behavioral and interpersonal treatments for depression in Puerto Rican adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 734-745.Google Scholar
  149. Rubin, K. H., & Mills, R. S. (1991). Conceptualizing developmental pathways to internalizing disorders in childhood. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 23(3), 300-317.Google Scholar
  150. Russ, S. W. (1998). Introductory comments. Journal of Child and Clinical Psychology, 27(1), 2-3.Google Scholar
  151. Sheeber, L., Allen, N., Davis, B., & Sorensen, E. (2000). Regulation of negative affect during mother–child problem-solving interactions: Adolescent depressive status and family processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 467-479.Google Scholar
  152. Sheeber, L., Hops, H., Alpert, A., Davis, B., & Andrews, J. (1997). Family support and conflict: Prospective relations to adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 333-344.Google Scholar
  153. Sheeber, L., Hops, H., Andrews, J., Alpert, T., & Davis, B. (1998). Interactional processes in families with depressed and non-depressed adolescents: Reinforcement of depressive behavior. Behavior Research and Therapy, 36(4), 417-427.Google Scholar
  154. Sheeber, L., Hops, H., & Davis, B. (2001). Family processes in adolescent depression. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(1), 19-35.Google Scholar
  155. Shirk, S. R., & Russell, R. L. (1996). Change processes in child psychotherapy: Revitalizing treatment and research. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  156. Siqueland, L., Rynn, M., & Diamond, G. S. (2002). Cognitive behavioral and attachment based family therapy for anxious adolescents: Phase I and II studies. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  157. Smetana, J., & Dillard, J. P. (1992) Adolescents' and parents' conceptions of parental authority and personal autonomy. Child Development, 65, 1147-1162.Google Scholar
  158. Stark, K. (1990). Childhood depression school-based intervention. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  159. Stark, K. D., Humphrey, L. L., Crook, K., & Lewis, K. (1990). Perceived family environments of depressed and anxious children: Child's and maternal figure's perspectives. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 527-547.Google Scholar
  160. Stark, K. D., Humphrey, L. L., Laurent, J., Livingston, R., & Christopher, J. (1993). Cognitive, behavioral, and family factors in the differentiation of depressive and anxiety disorders during childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 878-886.Google Scholar
  161. Startup, M., & Shapiro, D. A. (1993). Therapist treatment fidelity in prescriptive vs. exploratory psychotherapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32(4), 443-456.Google Scholar
  162. Steinberg, L. (1990). Autonomy, conflict and harmony in the family relationships. In S. S. Feldman and G. R. Elliot (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent(pp. 255-276). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  163. Stern, R., & Diamond, G. S. (under review). Repairing attachment ruptures in families with depressed adolescents: A task analysis.Google Scholar
  164. Thompson, R. A., & Calkins, S. D. (1996). The double-edged sword: Emotional regulation for children at risk. Development and Psychopathology, 8(1), 163-182.Google Scholar
  165. U. S. Congress, Office of Technology Assistance. (1991). Adolescent health:–Vol. 2. Background and the effectiveness of selected prevention and treatment services, OTA-H-466. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  166. Vernberg, E. M. (1998). Developmentally based psychotherapies: Comments and observations. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 46-48.Google Scholar
  167. Waters, E., Hamilton, C. E., & Weinfield, N. S. (2000). The stability of attachment security from infancy to adolescence and early adulthood: General introduction. Child Development, 71, 678-683.Google Scholar
  168. Waters, E., Kondo-Ikemura, K., Posada, G., & Richters, J. E. (1991). Learning to love: Mechanisms and milestones. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Self processes and development. The Minnesota symposia on child psychology(Vol. 23, pp. 217-255). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  169. Weinfeld, N. S., Sroufe, L. A., & Egelund, B. (2000). Attachment from infancy to early adulthood: A twenty-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 71, 684-689.Google Scholar
  170. Weissman, M. M., & Paykel, E. S. (1974). The depressed woman: A study of social relationships. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  171. Worthington, E. L. (1998). An empathy–humility–commitment model of forgiveness applied within family dyads. Journal of Family Therapy, 20(1), 59-76.Google Scholar
  172. Yeaton, W. H., & Sechrest, L. (1981). Meaningful measures of effect. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49(5), 766-767.Google Scholar
  173. Zahn-Waxler, C., Cole, P. M., & Barrett, K. C. (1991). Guilt and empathy: Sex differences and implications for the development of depression. In J. Garber & K. Dodge (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation(pp. 243-272). Cambridge studies in social and emotional development.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guy Diamond
    • 2
  • Lynne Siqueland
    • 1
  • Gary M. Diamond
    • 3
  1. 1.Children's Hospital of PhiladelphiaCenter for Family Intervention SciencePhiladelphia
  2. 2.University of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePennsylvania
  3. 3.Department of Behavioral SciencesBen-Gurion University of the NegevIsrael

Personalised recommendations