Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 405–422 | Cite as

Deregulation of NF-κB and its upstream kinases in cancer



The transcription factor NF-κB is known for its function in regulating immune and inflammatory responses. However, recent evidence suggests that NF-κB also plays a pivotal role in controlling cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell migration. Deregulated activation of NF-κB has been observed in various cancers. Over the past few years, significant progress has been made to elucidate the mechanisms of NF-κB activation in both normal and cancer cells. Notably, a large number of protein kinases have been shown to stimulate NF-κB activity under different conditions, and some of these kinases are aberrantly activated in cancer cells. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of NF-κB activation, with a focus on the NF-κB-activating kinases and their roles in cancer formation.

NF-κB NF-κB activating kinases cancer cell signaling IKK 


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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyPennsylvania State University College of MedicineHersheyUSA

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