Space Science Reviews

, Volume 104, Issue 1–4, pp 395–431

The Characterisation of Titan's Atmospheric Physical Properties by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (Hasi)

  • M. Fulchignoni
  • F. Ferri
  • F. Angrilli
  • A. Bar-Nun
  • M.A. Barucci
  • G. Bianchini
  • W. Borucki
  • M. Coradini
  • A. Coustenis
  • P. Falkner
  • E. Flamini
  • R. Grard
  • M. Hamelin
  • A.M. Harri
  • G.W. Leppelmeier
  • J.J. Lopez-Moreno
  • J.A.M. McDonnell
  • C.P. McKay
  • F.H. Neubauer
  • A. Pedersen
  • G. Picardi
  • V. Pirronello
  • R. Rodrigo
  • K. Schwingenschuh
  • A. Seiff
  • H. Svedhem
  • V. Vanzani
  • J. Zarnecki
Article

Abstract

The Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) is a multi-sensor package which has been designed to measure the physical quantities characterising the atmosphere of Titan during the Huygens probe descent on Titan and at the surface. HASI sensors are devoted to the study of Titan's atmospheric structure and electric properties, and to provide information on its surface, whether solid or liquid.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angrilli, F., Bianchini, G., Debei, S., Fanti, G., Ferri, F., Fulchignoni, M., and Saggin, B.: 1996, 'First results of performance test of temperature sensors of HASI instrument on Huygens-Cassini mission', Proceedings SPIE Denver 5'6 August 1996, 2803–09, 75–83ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Angrilli, F., Bianchini, G., Da Forno, R., Debei, S., Fanti, G., Ferri, F., and Saggin, B.: 1997, 'Performance verification of a resistance thermometer for atmospheric measurements', in the proceedings of TEMPMEKO'96 6th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, Torino, Italy, September 1996, Piero Macarino, eds., Torino, Italy, Levrotto & Bella, 163–167Google Scholar
  3. Bird, M. K., Dutta-Roy, R., Heyl, M., Allison, M., Asmar, S. W., Folkner, W. M., Preston, R. A., Atkinson, D. H., Edenhofer, P., Plettemeier, D., Wohlmuth, R., Iess, L. and Tyler, G. L.: 2002, 'The Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment', Space Sci. Rev., 104, 613–640CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Borucki, W. J., McKay, C. P., and Whitten, R. C.: 1984, 'Possible production by lightning of aerosols and trace gases in Titan's atmosphere', Icarus, 60, 260.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Borucki, W. J., Levin, Z., Whitten, R. C., Keesee, R. G., Capone, L. A., Summers, A. L., Toon, O. B., and Dubach, J.: 1987, 'Predictions of the electrical conductivity and charging of the aerosols in Titan's atmosphere', Icarus, 76, 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Courtin, R., Gautier, D., and McKay, C. P.: 1995, 'Titan's thermal emission spectrum: Re-analysis of the Voyager infrared measurements', Icarus, 114, 144–162CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Coustenis, A., Bézard, B., and Gautier, D.: 1989, 'Titan's atmosphere from Voyager infrared observations: I The gas composition of Titan's equatorial region', Icarus, 80, 54–76CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Coustenis, A., Bézard, B., Gautier, D., Marten, R. A., and Samuelson, R.: 1991, 'Titan's Atmosphere from Voyager infrared observations: III Vertical distribution of hydrocarbons and nitriles near Titan's North Pole', Icarus, 89, 152–167CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Coustenis, A. and Bézard, B.: 1995a, 'Titan's atmosphere from Voyager Infrared Observations: IV Latitudinal variations of temperature and composition', Icarus, 115, 126–140CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Coustenis, A., Lellouch, E., Maillard, J. P., and McKay, C. P.: 1995b, 'Titan surface: composition and variability from the near infrared albedo', Icarus, 118, 87–104CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Desch, M. D. and Kaiser, M. L.: 1990, 'Upper limit set for the level of lightning activity on Titan', Nature, 242, 442–443CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Flasar, F. M., Samuelson, R. E. and Conrath, B. J.: 1981, 'Titan's atmosphere: temperature and dynamics', Nature, 292, 693–698CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Fulchignoni, M.: 1992, 'The atmosphere of Titan and the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument', Il nuovo cimento, 15C, 1163–1177ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Fulchignoni, M., Angrilli, F., Bianchini, G., Bar-Nun, A., Barucci, M. A., Borucki, W., Coradini, M., Coustenis, A., Ferri, F., Grard, R., Hamelin, M., Harri, A. M., Leppelmeier, G. W., Lopez-Moreno, J.. J., McDonnell, J. A. M., McKay, C., Neubauer, F. H., Pedersen, A., Picardi, G., Pirronello, V., Pirjola, R., Rodrigo, R., Schwingenschuh, K., Seiff, A., Svedhem, H., Thrane, E., Vanzani, V., Visconti, G., and Zarnecki, J.: 1997, 'The Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI)', in Huygens Science, Payload and Mission, ESA-SP-1177, 163–176ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Grard, R., Svedhem, H., Brown, V., Falkner, P., and Hamelin, M.: 1995, 'An experimental investigation of atmospheric electricity and lightning activity to be performed during the descent of the Huygens probe onto Titan', J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 57, 575.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Grard, R.: 1997, 'Atmospheric electricity and lighting activity models for Titan', in Huygens Science, Payload and Mission, ESA SP-1177, 257–263.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Grard, R.: 1998, 'Electrostatic charging processes of balloon and gondola surfaces in the Earth atmosphere', J. Geophys. Res., 103, 23 315–23 320.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Griffith, C. A., Owen, T., and Wagener, R.: 1991, 'Titan's surface and troposphere investigated with ground-based, near-infrared observations', Icarus, 93, 362–368CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Harri, A.-M, Fagerström, B., Lehto, A., Leppelmeier, G. W., Mäkinen, T., Pirjola, R., Siikonen, T., and Siili, T.: 1998, 'Scientific objectives and implementation of the Pressure Profile Instrument (PPI/HASI) for the Huygens spacecraft', Planet. Space Sci., 46/9–10, 1383–1392CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Hubbard, W. B., Siacrdy, B., Miles, R., Hollis, A. J., Forrest, R. W., Nicolson, I. K. M., Appley, G., Beisker, W., Bittner, C., Bode, H. J., Bruns, M., Denzau, H., Nezel, M., Rieldel, E., Struckmann, H., Arlot, J. E., Roques, F. Sevre, F., Thuillot, W., Hoffman, M., Geyer, E. H., Buil, C., Colas, F., Lecacheux, J., Klotz, A., Thouvenot, E., Vidal, J. L., Carreira, E., Rossi, F., Blanco, C., Cristaldi, S., Nevo, Y., Reisema, H. J., Brosch, N., Cernis, K., Zdanavicius, K., Wasserman, L. H., Hunten, D. M., Gautier, D., Lellouch, E., Yelle, R. V., Rizk, B., Flasar, F. M., Porco, C. C., Toublanc, D., and Corugendo, G.: 1993, 'The occultation of 28 Sgr by Titan', Astronomy and Astrophysics, 269, 541-564ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Hunten, D. M., Tomasko, M. G., Flasar, F. M., Samuelson, R., Strobel, D. F., and Stevenson, D. J.: 1984, 'Titan' in Saturn, T. Gehrels and M.S. Matthews, Eds., Tucson, The University of Arizona Press, 671–759.Google Scholar
  22. Ip, W.-H.: 1990, 'Titan's upper armosphere', Astrophys. J. 362, 354–363CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Israel, G., Cabane, M., Brun, J.-F., Niemann, H., Way, S., Riedler, W., Steller, M., Raulin, F., and Coscia, D.: 2002, 'Huygens Probe Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser Experiment', Space Sci. Rev. 104, 433–468CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Lara, L. M., Lorenz, R. D., and Rodrigo, R.: 1994, 'Liquid and solid on the surface of Titan: Result of a new photochemical model', Planet. Space. Sci., 42, 5-14CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Lara, L. M., Lellouch, E., López-Moreno, J.. J. and Rodrigo, R.: 1996, 'Vertical distribution Titan's atmospheric neutral constituents', J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23 261-23 283, (corrections in 103, 25 775, 1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Lellouch, E., Hunten, D., Kockarts, G., and Coustenis, A.: 1990, 'Titan's thermosphere profile', Icarus 83, 308–324CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Lemmon, M. T., Karkoschka, E., and Tomasko, M.: 1995, 'Titan's rotation light curve', Icarus, 113, 27–38.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Lindal, G. F., Wood, G. E., Hotz, H. B., and Sweetnam, D. N.: 1983, 'The atmosphere of Titan: an analysis of Voyager 1 radio occultation measurement', Icarus, 53, 348–363CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Lorenz, R. D.: 1993, 'The life, death and after life of a raindrop on Titan', Planet. Space Sci. 41, 647.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Lunine, J. I., Stevenson, D. J., and Yung, Y. L.: 1983, 'Ethane ocean on Titan', Science, 222, 1229–1230.ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Lunine, J. I. and Lorenz, R. D.: 1996, 'Surface of Titan revealed by Cassini/Huygens', in Proceedings SPIE Denver 5'6 August 1996, 2803–06, 45–54ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Mäkinen, T., Salminen, P., Lehto, A., Leppelmeier, G., and Harri, A.-M.: 1998, 'PPI results from the balloon drop experiment of the HASI pressure profile instrument', Planet. Space Sci., 46/9–10, 1237–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McKay, C. P., Pollack, J. B., and Courtin, R.: 1989, 'The thermal structure of Titan's atmosphere', Icarus, 80, 23–53CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. McKay, C. P., Martin, S. C., Griffith, C. A., and Keller, R. M.: 1997, 'Temperature lapse rate and methane in Titan's troposphere', Icarus, 129, 498–505CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Muhleman, D. O., Grossman, A. W., and Butler, B. J.: 1995, 'Radar investigation of Mars, Mercury, and Titan', Ann. Rev. Earth and Planet. Sci. 23, 337–374ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Navarro-Gonzales R., and Ramirez, S. I.: 1997, 'Corona discharge of Titan's troposphere', Adv. Space Res., 19, 1121–1133CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Niemann, H. B., Atreya, S. K., Bauer, S. J., Biemann, K., Block, B., Carignan, G. R., Donahue, T. M., Frost, R. L., Gautier, D., Haberman, J. A., Harpold, D., Hunten, D. M., Israel, G., Lunine, J. I., Mauersberger, K., Owen, T. C., Raulin, F., Richards, J. E., and Way, S. H.: 2002, 'The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for the Huygens Probe', Space Sci. Rev., 104, 553–591,.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Polk, C.: 1982, 'Schumann Resonances' in Handbook of Atmospherics, Ed. H. Volland, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, CRC Press, 111–178.Google Scholar
  39. Rinnert, K.: 1985, 'Lightning on other planets', J. Geophys. Res., 90, 6225–6237.ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Rosen, J. L. M. and Hofmann, D. J.: 1981, 'Balloon-borne measurements of electrical conductivity, mobility and recombination coefficient', J. Geophys. Res., 86, 7406–7410.ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Ruffino, G., Castelli, A., Coppa, P., Cornaro, C., Foglietta, S., Fulchignoni, M., Gori, F., and Salvini, P.: 1996, 'The temperature sensor on the Huygens probe for the Cassini mission: Design, manufacture, calibration and tests of the laboratory prototype', Planet. Space Sci., 44-10, 1149–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sagan C. and Thompson, W. R.: 1984, 'Production and condensation of organic gases in the atmosphere of Titan', Icarus, 59, 133–161.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Schofield, J. T., Barnes, J. R., Crisp, D., Haberle, R. M., Larsen, S., Magalhaes, J. A., Murphy, J. R., Seiff, A. and Wilson, G.: 1997, 'The Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Structure Investigation/ Meteorology (ASI/MET) Experiment', Science, 278, 1752–1758CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Seiff, A., Kirk, D. B., Young, R. E., Blanchard, R. C., Findlay, J. T., Kelly, G. M., and Sommer, C.: 1980, 'Measurements of thermal structure and thermal contrast in the atmosphere of Venus and related dynamical observations: Results from the four Pioneer Venus probes', J. Geophys. Res., 85, 7903–7933.ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Seiff, A.: 1993, 'Mars atmospheric winds indicated by motion of the Viking landers during parachute descent', J. Geophys. Res., 98, 7461–7474.ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Seiff, A., Blanchard, R. C., Knight, T. C. D., Schubert, G., Kirk, D. B., Atkinson, D., Mihalov, J. D., and Young, R. E.: 1997a, 'Wind speed measured in the deep Jovian atmosphere by the Galileo probe accelerometer', Nature, 388, 650–652.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Seiff, A., Tillmann, J. E., Murphy, J. R., Schofield, J. T., Crisp, D., Barnes, J. R., LaBaw, C., Mahoney, C., Mihalov, J. D., Wilson, G. R., and Haberle, R.: 1997b, 'The atmosphere structure and meteorology instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander', J. Geophys. Res., 102, 4045–4056.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Seiff, A., Kirk, D. B., Knight, T. C. D., Young, R. E., Mihalov, J. D., Young, L., Milos, F. S., Schubert, G., Blanchard, R. C., and Atkinson, D.: 1998, 'Thermal structure of Jupiter's atmosphere near the edge of a 5 µm hot spot in the north equatorial belt', J. Geophys. Res., 103, 22857–22889.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Sicardy, B., Ferri, F., Roques, F., Brosh, N., Nevo, Y., Hubbard, W. B., Reitsema, H. R., Blanco, C., Cristaldi, S., Carreira, E., Rossi, F., Lecacheux, J., Pau, S., Beisker, W., Bittner, C., Bode, H.-J., Bruns, M., Denzau, H., Nezel, M., Riedel, E., Struckmann, H., Appleby, G., Forrrest, R. W., Nicolson, I. K. M., Miles, R., and Hollis, A. J.: 1999, 'The structure of Titan's stratosphere from the 28 Sgr occultation', Icarus, 142, 357–390.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith, P. H., Lorenz, R. D., and Lemmon, M. T.: 1995, 'New information on Titan's north-south contrast from HST', Bull. Am. Astron. Soc., 27, 1104.ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith, P. H., Lemmon, M. T., Lorenz, R. D., Sromovsky, L. A., Caldwell, J. J., and Allison, M. D.: 1996, 'Titan's surface revealed by HST imaging', Icarus, 119, 336–349.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Strobel, D. F. and Sicardy, B.: 1997, 'Gravity wave and wind shear models', in Huygens Science, Payload and Mission, ESA-SP-1177, 299–312.ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Tomasko, M. G., Buchhauser, D., Bushroe, M., Dafoe, L. E., Doose, L. R., Eibl, A., Fellows, C., McFarlane, E., Prout, G. M., Pringle, M. J., Rizk, B., See, C., Smith, P. H., and Tsetsenekos, K.: 2002, 'The Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) Experiment on the Huygens Entry Probe of Titan', Space Sci. Rev., 104, 469–551.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Toon, O. B., McKay, C. P., Courtin, R., and Ackerman, T. P.: 1988, 'Methane rain on Titan', Icarus, 75, 255–284.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Yelle, R.: 1991, 'Non-LTE models of Titan's upper atmosphere', Astrophys. J., 383, 380–400.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Zarnecki, J. C., Leese, M. R., Ghafoor, J. R. C., and Hathi, B.: 2002, 'Huygens' Surface Science Package', Space Sci. Rev., 104, 593–611.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Fulchignoni
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. Ferri
    • 3
  • F. Angrilli
    • 3
  • A. Bar-Nun
    • 4
  • M.A. Barucci
    • 1
  • G. Bianchini
    • 3
  • W. Borucki
    • 5
  • M. Coradini
    • 6
  • A. Coustenis
    • 1
  • P. Falkner
    • 7
  • E. Flamini
    • 8
  • R. Grard
    • 7
  • M. Hamelin
    • 9
  • A.M. Harri
    • 10
  • G.W. Leppelmeier
    • 10
  • J.J. Lopez-Moreno
    • 11
  • J.A.M. McDonnell
    • 12
  • C.P. McKay
    • 5
  • F.H. Neubauer
    • 13
  • A. Pedersen
    • 14
  • G. Picardi
    • 15
  • V. Pirronello
    • 16
  • R. Rodrigo
    • 11
  • K. Schwingenschuh
    • 17
  • A. Seiff
    • 18
  • H. Svedhem
    • 7
  • V. Vanzani
    • 3
  • J. Zarnecki
    • 12
  1. 1.Département de Recherche Spatiale (DESPA), ObsParis-MeudonFrance
  2. 2.Université Denis Diderot - Paris 7France
  3. 3.C.I.S.A.S. Centre of Studies and Activities for Space G. ColomboUniv. Padova (UPD)Italy
  4. 4.Dept. Of Geophysics and Planetary SciencesUniv. Tel AvivIsrael
  5. 5.NASA/AMESUSA
  6. 6.ESA, Science DirectorateParisFrance
  7. 7.Solar System Division (SSD)ESTECNoordwijkThe Netherlands
  8. 8.Agenzia Spaziale ItalianaRomaItaly
  9. 9.Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l'Environnement (LPCE)OrleansFrance
  10. 10.Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)HelsinkiFinland
  11. 11.Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC)GranadaSpain
  12. 12.University of Kent (UKC)CanterburyUK
  13. 13.University of KölnGermany
  14. 14.University of OsloNorway
  15. 15.University La SapienzaRomaItaly
  16. 16.Osservatorio Astrofisico di CataniaItaly
  17. 17.Space Research InstituteAustrian Academy of Sciences (IWF)GrazAustria
  18. 18.Dept. of MeteorologySan José State University FoundationSan José

Personalised recommendations