, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 307–319 | Cite as

Distribution of insect pathogenic soil fungi in Switzerland with special reference to Beauveria brongniartii and Metharhizium anisopliae

  • Siegfried Keller
  • Philip Kessler
  • Christian Schweizer


Between 1998 and 2000 soil samples from 82fields in north, east, central and south westof Switzerland were analysed for presence ofinsect pathogenic soil fungi using a selectivemedium and the Galleria bait method. Thedetection rates with either method were verysimilar. 96% of the fields distributed overall examined regions contained Metarhiziumanisopliae. The presence of Beauveriabrongniartii was limited to sites colonised byits host, Melolontha melolontha. It wasalso present at a site where M.melolontha disappeared about 40 years ago. Onthe other hand, B. brongniartii was notfound in four fields containing M.melolontha populations. Beauveriabassiana, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Conidiobolus sp. were other entomopathogenicfungi isolated during this survey. Differencesin the presence of M. anisopliae betweenarable fields and adjacent meadows as well asbetween orchards and meadows are discussed.

Beauveria brongniartii entomopathogenic soil fungi Metarhizium anisopliae natural occurrence Switzerland 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Enkerli, J., F. Widmer, C. Gessler and S. Keller, 2001. Strain-specific microsatellite markers in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii. Mycol. Res. 105: 1079–1087.Google Scholar
  2. Fargues, J., P.-H. Robert and O. Reisinger, 1979. Formulation des productions de masse de l'hyphomycète entomopathogène Beauveria en vue des applications phytosanitaires. Ann. zool. ecol. anim. 11: 247–257.Google Scholar
  3. Ferron, P., 1981. Pest control by the fungi Beauveria and Metarhizium. In: H.D. Burges (ed), Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970–1980. Academic Press, London. pp. 465–482.Google Scholar
  4. Frei, E. and K. Peyer, 1984. Böden, Blatt 7a. In: Inst. Kartographie ETHZ (ed), Atlas der Schweiz. Bundesamt für Landestopographie, 2. Ausgabe, Bern.Google Scholar
  5. Fornallaz, C., 1992. Demökologische Grundlagen und praktische Durchführung der mikrobiellen Bekämpfung des Maikäfers Melolontha melolontha L. mit dem Pilz Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch. Ph.D. Thesis No. 9736, ETH Zurich.Google Scholar
  6. Keller, S., 2000a. fahrungen in der Engerlingsbekämpfung mit dem Pilz Beauveria brongniartii. Mitt. deutsch. Ges. allg. angew. Ent. 12: 111–114.Google Scholar
  7. Keller, S., 2000b. Use of Beauveria brongniartii in Switzerland and its acceptance by farmers. Bull. IOBC/WPRS 23(8): 67–71.Google Scholar
  8. Keller, S., A.-I. David-Henriet and C. Schweizer, 2000. Insect pathogenic soil fungi from Melolontha melolontha control sites in the canton Thurgau. Bull. IOBC/WPRS 23(8): 73–78.Google Scholar
  9. Keller, S., B. Pärli and C. Jacober, 1996. The influence of soils on the growth of Beauveria brongniartii. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 19(2): 74–78.Google Scholar
  10. Keller, S., B. Pärli, M. Lujan and C. Schweizer, 1993. Der Einfluss von Fungiziden auf den insektenpathogenen Pilz Beauveria brongniartii (SACC.) PETCH. Anz. Schädlingskde., Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz 66: 108–114.Google Scholar
  11. Keller, S. and C. Schweizer, 2001. Ist das Drahtwurm-Problem ein Pilz-Problem? Agrarforschung 7(8): 248–251.Google Scholar
  12. Keller, S., C. Schweizer, E. Keller and H. Brenner, 1997. Control of white grubs (Melolontha melolontha L.) by treating adults with the fungus Beauveria brongniartii. Biocontrol Science and Technology 7: 105–116.Google Scholar
  13. Keller, S., C. Schweizer and P. Shah, 1999. Differential susceptibility of two Melolontha populations to infections by the fungus Beauveria brongniartii. Biocontrol Science and Technology 9: 441–446.Google Scholar
  14. Keller, S. and G. Zimmermann, 1989. Mycopathogens of soil insects. In: N. Wilding, N.M. Collins, P.M. Hammond and J.F. Webber (eds), Insect-Fungus Interactions. Academic Press, London. pp. 239–270.Google Scholar
  15. Kleespies, R., H. Bathon and G. Zimmermann, 1989. Untersuchungen zum natürlichen Vorkommen von entomopathogenen Pilzen und Nematoden in verschiedenen Böden in der Umgebung von Darmstadt. Gesunde Pflanzen 41(10): 350–355.Google Scholar
  16. Klingen, I., 2000. Natural occurrence of insect pathogenic fungi and their pathogenicity on different host species with emphasis on Delia radicum and Delia floralis. Ph.D. Thesis 2000: 24, Agr. Univ. Norway.Google Scholar
  17. Mietkiewski, R.T., J.K. Pell and S.J. Clark, 1997. Influence of pesticide use on the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in arable soils in the UK: Field and laboratory comparisons. Biocontrol Science and Technology 7: 565–575.Google Scholar
  18. Strasser, H., 1999. Beurteilung der Wirksamkeit des biologischen Pflanzenschutzpräparates MELOCONT-Pilzgerste zur Maikäferbekämpfung. Der Förderungsdienst 47(5): 158–164.Google Scholar
  19. Strasser, H., A. Forer and F. Schinner, 1997. Development of media for the selective isolation and maintenance of virulence of Beauveria brongniartii. In: T.A. Jackson and T.R. Glare (eds), Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Microbial Control of Soil Dwelling Pests, February 21–23, 1996. AgResearch Lincoln, New Zealand. pp. 125–130.Google Scholar
  20. Zimmermann, G., 1986. The Galleria bait method for detection of entomopathogenic fungi in soil. J. Appl. Ent. 102: 213–215.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siegfried Keller
    • 1
  • Philip Kessler
    • 1
  • Christian Schweizer
    • 1
  1. 1.Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Reckenholzstrasse 191ZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations