Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 7–26 | Cite as

The Development of Self-Control of Emotion: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Influences

  • Nathan A. Fox
  • Susan D. Calkins


In this paper, we review evidence that supports the notion that intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the development of self-control of emotions. Intrinsic factors include the infant's temperament, and cognitive processes such as attention and inhibitory control. Extrinsic factors involve the caregiving environment, sibling and peer relationships, and cultural expectations regarding emotional displays. Integrative approaches to the study of the development of self-control of emotion will be most fruitful if investigations examine the interplay, over time, among these internal and external factors.

self control of emotions temperament cognitive processes caregiver-child interaction 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nathan A. Fox
    • 1
  • Susan D. Calkins
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Human DevelopmentUniversity of MarylandCollege Park
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe University of North Carolina at GreensboroGreensboro

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