Knockout Mice as Model Systems for Studying nm23/NDP Kinase Gene Functions. Application to the nm23-M1 Gene
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Mice carrying a homozygous germ-line mutation in the nm23-M1 gene that eliminates its protein expression and drives expression of β-galactosidase by nm23-M1 promoter have been generated. nm23-M1 gene inactivation is not teratogenic and the pups can grow to adult age without apparent health problems. However, they undergo a growth retardation and knocked out females cannot feed their pups. Both effects are background dependent. β-galactosidase mapping of nm23-M1 promoter activation during embryogenesis shows that the nm23-M1 gene is principally expressed in epithelial layer of tissues which require inductive epithelial–mesenchymal interactions for their formation. In conclusion, invalidated mice could be interesting models to analyze the role of nm23-M1 on signal transduction pathway regulation, or cancer induction and proliferation.
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