Advertisement

Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 135–147 | Cite as

Diversity of native bee visitors of cucurbit crops (Cucurbitaceae) in Yucatán, México

  • Virginia Meléndez-Ramirez
  • Sergio Magaña-Rueda
  • Víctor Parra-TablaEmail author
  • Ricardo Ayala
  • Jorge Navarro
Article

Abstract

Native bees in Yucatán, México are treatened by agricultural land uses that limit their food resources, alter their reproductive habitats and increase their mortality. Various species may disappear before their importance for regional agricultural productivity and ecosystem maintenance is known. In order to assess their assemblage as visitors of cucurbit crops, we sampled more than 2000 bee specimens on fourteen fields of pumpkin, cucumber, melon and watermelon from five localities between 1995 and 1997; sample units consisted of all bees collected by net sweeping in a given field during 25–30 accumulated hours on separate days. The fourteen samples comprised bees of six families, 29 genera and 58 species. Composition per sample ranged between 10 and 27 species and abundance between 28 and 444 individuals. Seven species (six genera) of Apidae, Anthophoridae and Halictidae comprised around 80% of all the individuals collected. Yet, diversity measures indicated intermediate to high evenness in most sampled bee assemblages, i.e. despite the frequent abundance of some species of Augochlora, Partamona, Ceratina, Trigona or Peponapis, other bee visitors were also relatively important, particularly in small samples. Individual samples of pumpkin bee visitors had significantly different evenness among themselves and to other cucurbit crops. The percent similarity and number of shared species among the fourteen samples were both usually low; lumping data per crop and locality showed, however, higher evenness and more common species than individual samples. Results are discussed in terms of future research priorities: natural history of tropical native bees and strategies to monitor bee community changes for conservation purposes.

Cucurbitaceae Diversity Native bees Pollinators Yucatán México 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen-Wardell G., Bernhard P., Bitner R., Búrquez A., Buchmann S., Cane J. et al. 1998. The potential consequences of pollinator declines on the conservation of biodiversity and stability of crop yields. Conservation Biology 12: 8–17.Google Scholar
  2. Ayala R. 1992. Las abejas sin aguijón de México. MS thesis, UNAM, México.Google Scholar
  3. Ayala R., Griswold T. and Bullock S. 1996. Apoidea (Hymenoptera). In: Llorente B.J., García-Aldrete A.N. and González E.S. (eds), Biodiversidad, Taxonomía y Biogeografía de Artrópodos de México: Hacia una síntesis de su conocimiento. CONABIO-UNAM, México, pp. 423–464.Google Scholar
  4. Ayala R., Griswold T. and Bullock S. 1998. Las abejas nativas de México. In: Ramamoorthy T.P., Bye R., Lot A. and Fa J. (eds), Diversidad biológica de México: orígenes y distribución. IBUNAM, México, pp. 179–225.Google Scholar
  5. Buchmann L.S. and Nabhan P.G. 1996. The Forgotten Pollinators. Island Press, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Cane J.H. 2001. Habitat fragmentation and native bees: a premature verdict? Conservation Ecology 5: 3.Google Scholar
  7. Cane J.H. and Tepedino V.J. 2001. Causes and extent of declines among native North American invertebrate pollinators: detection, evidence and consequences. Conservation Ecology 5: 1.Google Scholar
  8. Canto-Aguilar A. and Parra-Tabla V. 2000. Importance of conserving alternative pollinators: assessing the pollination efficiency of the squash bee, Peponapis limitaris in Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae). Journal of Insect Conservation 4: 203–210.Google Scholar
  9. Delfin H., Parra-Tabla V. and Echazarreta C. 1995. El Conocimiento y Manejo de las Selvas de la Península de Yucatán. UADY, Mer. Yuc., Mex.Google Scholar
  10. Feinsinger P. 1987. Approaches to nectarivore-plant interactions in the New World. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 60: 285–319.Google Scholar
  11. Flores S. and Espejel C. 1994. Tipos de vegetación de la Península de Yucatán. Etnoflora Yucatanense 3: 1–135.Google Scholar
  12. Free J.B. 1993. Insect pollination of crops. 2nd edn. Academic Press, London, UK.Google Scholar
  13. García E. 1988. Modificaciones al sistema de clasificación climática de Köppen adaptado a las condiciones climáticas de México. Instituto de Geografía-UNAM, México.Google Scholar
  14. Heithaus E.R. 1979. Community structure of neotropic flower visiting bees and wasps: diversity and phenology. Ecology 60: 190–202.Google Scholar
  15. Hurd P.D. Jr, Linsley E.G. and Whitaker T.W. 1971. Squash and gourd bees (Peponapis, Xenoglossa) and the origin of the cultivated Cucurbita. Evolution 21: 218–234.Google Scholar
  16. Kearns C.A. and Inouye D.W. 1997. Pollinators, flowering plants, and conservation biology. Bioscience 47: 297–307.Google Scholar
  17. Kevan P.G. 1991. Pollination: keystone process in sustainable global productivity. Acta Horticulturae 288: 103–110.Google Scholar
  18. Kevan P.G., Greco C.F. and Belaoussoff S. 1997. Biodiversity and abundance in diagnosis and measuring of ecosystem health: pesticide stress on pollinators on blueberry heaths. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 1122–1136.Google Scholar
  19. Kevan P. and Phillips T.P. 2001. The economic impacts of pollinator declines: an approach to assessing the consequences. Conservation Ecology 5: 8.Google Scholar
  20. Krebs C.J. 1999. Ecological Methodology. Addison-Welsey Educational Publishers Inc, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Mayr E. and Ashlock P.D. 1991. Principles of Systematic Zoology. McGraw-Hill, USA.Google Scholar
  22. McGregor S.E. 1976. Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants. Agriculture Hand Book. No. 496.Google Scholar
  23. Meléndez R.V., Parra T.V., Echazarreta C.M. and Magaña R.S. 2000. Use of native bees and honeybees in horticultural crops of Cucurbita moschata in Yucatán, México. In: Munn P. (ed.), Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Tropical Bees: Management and Diversity. I.B.R.A., Cardiff, UK, pp. 65–70.Google Scholar
  24. Michener C.D., McGinley R. and Danforth B.N. 1994. The Bee Genera of North America and Central America (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  25. Nabhan G.P. and Buchman S.E. 1997. Services provided by pollinators. In: Daily G.C. (ed.), Nature's services: societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, pp. 133–150.Google Scholar
  26. O'Toole C. 1993. Diversity of native bees and agroecosystems. In: La Salle J. and Gauld I.D. (eds), Hymenoptera and Biodiversity. CAB International, London, pp. 169–196.Google Scholar
  27. Parra-Tabla V., Meléndez V., Contreras H. and Pinkus M. 1998. Efecto del uso de pesticidas en la riqueza y abundancia de abejas nativas asociadas a cultivos hortícolas en el estado de Yucatán, México. In: XXXIII Congreso Nacional de Entomología., Acapulco, México, pp. 203–206.Google Scholar
  28. Parra-Tabla V., Vargas C., Magaña-Rueda S. and Navarro J. 2000. Female and male pollination success of Oncidium ascendens Lindey (Orchidaceae) in two contrasting habitat patches: forest vs agricultural field. Biological Conservation 94: 335–340.Google Scholar
  29. Pascarella J.B., Waddington K.D. and Neal P.R. 1999. The Bee Fauna (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Everglades National Park, Florida and Adjacent Areas: Distribution, Phenology, and Biogeography. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 72: 32–45.Google Scholar
  30. Peet R.K. 1974. The measurement of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5: 285–307.Google Scholar
  31. Rohlf F. 1988. NTSYS-PC: Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System 1.50. Exeter Publishing, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  32. Roubik D.W. 1989. Ecology and Natural History of Tropical Bees. Cambridge University Press, USA.Google Scholar
  33. Roubik D.W. 1995. Pollination of Cultivated Plants in the Tropics. FAO 118: 1–197.Google Scholar
  34. Roubik D.W. 2001. Ups and downs in pollinator populations: when is there a decline? Conservation Ecology 5: 2.Google Scholar
  35. Roubik D.W. and Wolda H. 2001. Do competing honey bees matter? Dynamics and abundance of native bees before and after honey bee invasion. Population Ecology 43: 53–62.Google Scholar
  36. Shrivastava U. 1990. Insect pollination in some cucurbits. In: 6th International Symposium on Pollination. ISHS, Tilburg, pp. 445–451.Google Scholar
  37. Tepedino V. 1981. The pollination efficiency of squash bee (Peponapis pruinosa) and honey bee (Apis mellifera) on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Journal of Kansas Entomological Society 54: 359–377.Google Scholar
  38. Willis D.S. and Kevan P.G. 1995. Foraging dynamics of Peponapis pruinosa (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) on pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) in southern Ontario. The Canadian Entomologist 127: 167–175.Google Scholar
  39. Zar J.H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  40. Zizumbo V.D. 1992. Las calabazas del sistema milpero como recurso genético. In: Zizumbo V.D., Rassmussen C.H., Arias-Reyes L.M. and Terán-Contreras S. (eds), La modernización de la milpa en Yucatán: utopía o realidad. CICY-DANIDA, Yucatán, pp. 161–174.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Virginia Meléndez-Ramirez
    • 1
  • Sergio Magaña-Rueda
    • 1
  • Víctor Parra-Tabla
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ricardo Ayala
    • 2
  • Jorge Navarro
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de EcologíaUniversidad Autónoma de YucatánMérida YucatánMéxico
  2. 2.Estación de Biología “Chamela” Instituto de BiologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoJaliscoMéxico

Personalised recommendations