Given that thoughtfully developed formal after-school programs can make a difference in the academic performance of schoolchildren, and that some public schools are implementing their own on-site after-school curricula, this study sought to identify programmatic features that appear to be associated with successful after-school programming. Qualitative methods were used and the study site was the Manchester Youth Development Center, which has a twenty-five-year record of effective service. The six elements found as salient were that both structure and autonomous space are provided; academic achievement is supported; the program is culturally consistent (in the present case, African-American cultural patterns are evidenced); there is a core of committed authoritative adults; the leadership is child-centered; and the environment is safe.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Allen, B., and Boykin, W. (1991). The influence of contextual factors on Afro-American and Euro-American children's performance: Effects of movement opportunity and music. International Journal of Psychology 26: 373–387.
Baumrind, D. (1966). The effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development 37: 887–907.
Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs 75: 43–88.
Beck, E. (1996). Prevention and Intervention Programming: Lessons from an afterschool program. Dissertation, Dissertation Abstracts International.
Bergin, D., Hudson, L., Chryst, C., and Resetar, M. (1992). An afterschool intervention program for educationally disadvantaged young people. The Urban Review 24: 203–217.
Bogdan, R. C., and Biklen, S. K. (1982). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Bolvin, J. O. (1995). The Manchester Youth Development Center. Unpublished.
Boykin, A. W. (1986). The triple quandary and the schooling of Afro-American children. In U. Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children: New Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brice-Heath, S. (1983). Ways with Words: Language Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G., Klebanov, K., and Sealand, N. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American Journal of Sociology 99: 53–395.
Clark, R. (1983). Family Life and School Achievement: Why Poor Black Children Proceed or Fail. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Delpit, L. (1995). Other People's Children: Culture Conflict in the Classroom. New York: New Press.
Dryfoos, J. (1991). Adolescents at risk: A summation of work in the field programs and policies. Journal of Adolescent Health 12: 630–637.
Dweck, C. S. (1975). The role of expectations and attributions in the alleviation of learned helplessness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31: 674–685.
Garbarino, J., and Sherman, D. (1980). High-risk neighborhoods and high risk families: The human ecology of child maltreatment. Child Development 51: 188–198.
Geertz, C. (1973). Thick description. In C. Geertz (Ed.), The Interpretation of Cultures (pp. 3–30). New York: Basic Books.
Gelles, R. (1992). Poverty and violence toward children. American Behavioral Scientist 35: 258–274.
Goddard, L. (1992). African American Youth at Risk Work Group: An African-Centered Model of Prevention for African-American Youth at High Risk. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Service Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Hare, B. (1987). Structural inequality and the endangered status of black youth. The Journal of Negro Education 56: 100–111.
Hill, R. B. (1993). Research on the African-American Family: A Holistic Perspective. Westport, CN: Auburn House.
Husock, H. (1993). Bringing back the Settlement House: Settlements see poor people as citizens not clients. Public Welfare 16–25.
Kagan, J. (1991). Etiologies of adolescents at risk. Journal of Adolescent Health 12: 591–596.
Kozol, J. (1991). Savage Inequalities: Children in American Schools. New York: Crown.
Kretzmann, J., and McKnight, J. (1993). Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path toward Finding a Mobilizing a Community's Assets. Chicago: ACTA Publications.
Lofland, J., and Lofland, L. (1984). Analyzing Social Settings: A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Manchester Youth Development Center. (1977). Heinz Proposal. Unpublished.
Mayer, S., and Jencks, C. (1989). Growing up in poor neighborhoods: How much does it matter? Science 17: 1441–1445.
Miles, M., and Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Morris, M. (1992). The complex nature of intervention. In Goddard (ed.), African-American Youth at High Risk Work Group: An African-Centered Model of Prevention for African-American Youth at High Risk. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Series Public Health Service Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
National Research Council (1993). Losing Generations: Adolescents in High Risk Settings/ Pannel on High Risk Youth, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Neisser, U. (1987). The School Achievement of Minority Children: New Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Nobles, W., and Goddard, L. (1992). An African-centered model of prevention for African-American youth at high risk. In Goddard (Ed.), African-American Youth at High Risk Work Group: An African-Centered Model of Prevention for African-American Youth at High Risk. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Series Public Health Service Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Ogbu, J. (1978). Minority Education and Caste: The American System in Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Academic Press.
Ogbu J. (1995). Cultural problems in minority education: Their interpretations and consequences—Part One: Theoretical background. The Urban Review 27: 189–205.
Patton, M. Q. (1986). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Pinkett, J. (1992). Spirituality in the African-American community. In Goddard (Ed.), African-American Youth at High Risk Work Group: An African-Centered Model of Prevention for African-American Youth at High Risk. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Series Public Health Service Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Posner, J., and Vandell, D. (1994). Low income children's afterschool care: Are there beneficial effects of afterschool programs? Child Development 65: 440–457.
Robinson, B. (1974). Procedures to Be Utilized in a Community-Run Afterschool Program for Elementary School Students. Dissertation, Dissertation Abstracts International.
Robinson, J. (1975). Bidwell Church: A Model for Ministry to “Street People” in the Black Community. Dissertation, Dissertation Abstracts International.
Ross, J., Saavedra, P., Shur, G., Winters, F., and Felner, R. (1992). The effectiveness of an afterschool program for primary grade latchkey students in precursors of substance abuse. Journal of Community Psychology, Special Issue, 22–38.
Schinke, S., Orlandi, M., and Cole, K. (1992). Boys and girls clubs in public housing developments: Prevention services for youth at-risk. Journal of Community Psychology, Special Issue, 118–128.
Schofield, J. W. (1989). Black and White in School: Trust, Tolerance or Tokenism? New York: Praeger.
Schofield, J. A., and Andrews, S. (1983). Race and gender barriers: Preadolescent peer behavior in academic classrooms. Child Development 54: 1932–1040.
Steele, C. (1992) Race and school of black Americans. Atlantic Monthly, April, 68–78.
Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S., Dornbusch, S., and Darling, N. (1992). Impact of parenting on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, School involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development 63: 1266–1280.
Strauss, A., and Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Wilson, W. J. (1996). When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. New York: Knopf.
About this article
Cite this article
Beck, E.L. Prevention and Intervention Programming: Lessons from an After-School Program. The Urban Review 31, 107–124 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023200500215
- Intervention Programming
- Academic Achievement
- Public School
- Academic Performance
- Education Research