American Journal of Community Psychology

, Volume 31, Issue 1–2, pp 129–141 | Cite as

The Violent Matrix: A Study of Structural, Interpersonal, and Intrapersonal Violence Among a Sample of Poor Women

  • Susan E. JamesEmail author
  • Janice Johnson
  • Chitra Raghavan
  • Tessa Lemos
  • Michele Barakett
  • Diana Woolis


One goal of this paper is to present an integrated tripartite model of violence, with a focus on structural violence within an oppression paradigm. Using qualitative and quantitative data from 27 women (70% African American and 30% European American) who participated in a national substance abuse treatment demonstration program, we describe a model of violence in which structural violence is presented within a transactional relationship with interpersonal, and intrapersonal violence. We suggest that the effects of structural, interpersonal, and intrapersonal violence are magnified when race and poverty are considered. The second goal of the paper is to present a preliminary test of the new model of violence. Results indicated that different levels and types of violence are interrelated. Implications of these findings for empowering solutions are suggested.

violence women addiction welfare 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan E. James
    • 1
    Email author
  • Janice Johnson
    • 1
  • Chitra Raghavan
    • 1
  • Tessa Lemos
    • 1
  • Michele Barakett
    • 2
  • Diana Woolis
    • 1
  1. 1.The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University
  2. 2.Teacher's CollegeColumbia UniversityUSA

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