Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 319–345 | Cite as

Adolescent Gambling Behavior: A Prevalence Study and Examination of the Correlates Associated with Problem Gambling

  • Rina Gupta
  • Jeffrey L. Derevensky
Article

Abstract

Eight-hundred and seventeen adolescent high school students in the Montreal region completed the DSM-IV-J gambling screen along with a questionnaire devised by the authors inquiring about their gambling behavior, including items assessing the types of activities in which they engage, frequency of involvement, reasons for gambling, and their cognitive perceptions of gambling activities. The results indicate that, in general, 80.2% of students reported having gambled during the previous year, with 35.1% gambling a minimum of once per week. Adolescents reported participating in gambling behavior more often than any other addictive behavior, including cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and illicit drug use. The mean age of onset of gambling behavior for the sample was 11.5 years. The rate of pathological gambling was 4.7% as measured by the DSM-IV-J. Pathological gamblers were more likely to have parents with gambling problems and to be engaging in illegal activities than non-pathological gamblers. Gender differences were evident, with males engaging in gambling activities more than females. Differences in game preferences were found, with males more attracted to sports lottery tickets and sports pool betting and females more attracted to lottery tickets and bingo. Gambling awareness and prevention issues are addressed.

Keywords

Gambling Problem Pathological Gambler Gambling Behavior Addictive Behavior Gambling Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edition) (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  2. Arcuri, A. F., Lester, D., & Smith, F. O. (1985). Shaping adolescent gambling behavior. Adolescence, 20, 935–938.Google Scholar
  3. Babad, E., & Katz, Y. (1991). Wishful thinking-against all odds. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 1921–1938.Google Scholar
  4. Bailey, S. L., Flewelling, R. L., & Rachal, J. V. (1992). Predicting continued use of marijuana among adolescents: the relative influence of drug-specific and social context factors. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33, 51–66.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theories. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Browne, B. (1989). Going on tilt: Frequent poker players and control. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 3–21.Google Scholar
  8. Chantal, Y., & Vallerand, R.J. (1996). Skill versus luck: A motivational analysis of gambling involvement. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 407–418.Google Scholar
  9. Custer, R. L. (1982). An overview of compulsive gambling. In P. Carone, S. Yoles, S. Keiffer and L. Krinsky (Eds.), Addictive disorders update (pp. 107–124). New York: Human Sciences Press.Google Scholar
  10. Dell, L. J., Ruzicka, M. F., & Palisi, A. T. (1981). Personality and other factors associated with the gambling addiction. International Journal of the Addictions, 16, 149–156.Google Scholar
  11. Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (1997, June). Prevalence estimates of adolescent gambling: A comparison of the SOGS-RA, DSM-IV-J, and the G.A. 20 Questions. Paper presented at the Tenth International Conference on Gambling and Risk-Taking, Montreal, Que.Google Scholar
  12. Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (1996, September). Risk-taking and gambling behavior among adolescents: An empirical examination. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Conference on Compulsive Gambling, Chicago.Google Scholar
  13. Derevensky, J., Gupta, R. & Della-Cioppa, J. (1996). A developmental perspective of gambling behavior in children and adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 49–65.Google Scholar
  14. Fisher, S. (1990). Juvenile gambling: The pull of the fruit machine. Paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on Risk and Gambling. London.Google Scholar
  15. Fisher, S. (1992). Measuring pathological gambling in children: The case of fruit machines in the U.K. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8, 263–285.Google Scholar
  16. Frank, M.L., Lester, D., & Wexler, A. (1991). Suicidal behavior among members of Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7, 249–254.Google Scholar
  17. Govoni, R., Rupcich, N., & Frisch, G.R. (1996). Gambling behavior of adolescent gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 305–318.Google Scholar
  18. Griffiths, M. D. (1989). Gambling in children and adolescents. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 66–83.Google Scholar
  19. Griffiths, M. D. (1990). The acquisition, development, and maintenance of fruit machine gambling in adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 6, 193–204.Google Scholar
  20. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (1998). An empirical examination of Jacobs' General Theory of Addictions: Do adolescents fit theory? Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 17–49.Google Scholar
  21. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (1997). Familial and social influences on juvenile gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 179–192.Google Scholar
  22. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (1996). The relationship between video-game playing and gambling behavior in children and adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 375–394.Google Scholar
  23. Harrison, P.A. & Luxenberg, M.G. (1995). Comparisons of alcohol and other drug problems among Minnesota adolescents in 1989 and 1992. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 149, 137–144.Google Scholar
  24. Huxley, J., & Carroll, D. (1992). A survey of fruit machine gambling in adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8, 167–179.Google Scholar
  25. Jacobs, D. F. (1987). A general theory of addictions: Application to treatment and rehabilitation planning for pathological gamblers. In T. Galski (Ed.) The handbook of pathological gambling. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  26. Jacobs, D. F., Marston, A. R., & Singer, R. D. (1985). Testing a general theory of addictions: Similarities and differences between alcoholics, pathological gamblers, and compulsive overeaters. In J.J. Sanchez-Sosa (ed.) Health and Clinical Psychology. North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.Google Scholar
  27. Ladouceur, R. (1996). The Prevalence of pathological gambling in Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 129–142.Google Scholar
  28. Ladouceur, R., Dubé, D., & Bujold, A. (1994). Prevalence of pathological gamblers and related problems among college students in the Quebec metropolitan area. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 289–293.Google Scholar
  29. Ladouceur, R., & Dubé, D. (1994). Gambling among primary school students in the Quebec metropolitan area. Journal of Gambling Studies, 10, 363–370.Google Scholar
  30. Ladouceur, R., & Mireault, C. (1988). Gambling behaviors among high school students in the Quebec area. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 3–12.Google Scholar
  31. Langer, E. J. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(2), 311–328.Google Scholar
  32. Lesieur, H. R., & Klein, R. (1987). Pathological gambling among high school students. Addictive Behaviors, 12, 129–135.Google Scholar
  33. Lesieur, H. R., & Rothschild, J. (1989). Children of Gamblers Anonymous members. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 269–281.Google Scholar
  34. Lesieur, H. R., Blume, S. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gambling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.Google Scholar
  35. Lesieur, H. R., Blume, S., & Zoppa, R. (1986). Alcoholism, drug abuse, and gambling. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 10, 33–38.Google Scholar
  36. Livingston, J. (1974). Compulsive gamblers: Observations on action and abstinence. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  37. Powell, J., Hardoon, K, Baboushkin, H., & Derevensky, J. (1997, August). Risk-taking in blackjack, roulette and slots: Do probable pathological gamblers take greater risks? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Conference on Compulsive Gambling, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  38. Shaffer, H.J., & Hall, M.N. (1996). Estimating prevalence of adolescent gambling disorders: A quantitative synthesis and guide toward standard gambling nomenclature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 193–214.Google Scholar
  39. Shaffer, H. J., & Jones, S. B. (1989). Quitting cocaine: The struggle against impulse. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  40. Sommers, I. (1988). Pathological gambling: Estimating prevalence and group characteristics. International Journal of Addictions, 23, 477–490.Google Scholar
  41. Stinchfield, R., Cassuto, N., Winters, K., & Latimer, W. (1997). Prevalence of gambling among Minnesota public school students in 1992 and 1995. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 25–48.Google Scholar
  42. Volberg, R. (1998). Gambling and problem gambling among adolescents in New York. Report to the New York Council on Problem Gambling, Inc.Google Scholar
  43. Volberg, R. (1996). Prevalence studies of problem gambling in the United States. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 111–128.Google Scholar
  44. Volberg, R. A., & Steadman, H. J. (1988). Refining prevalence estimates of pathological gambling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 502–505.Google Scholar
  45. Volberg, R. A., & Steadman, H. J. (1989). Policy implications of prevalence estimates of pathological gambling. In H. J. Shaffer, S. A. Stein, & B. Gambino (Eds.), Compulsive gambling: Theory, research, and practice. Toronto: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  46. Winters, K. C., & Stinchfield, R. (1993). Gambling behavior among Minnesota youth: Monitoring change from 1990 to 1991/1992. St. Paul, MN: Department of Human Services.Google Scholar
  47. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R., & Fulkerson, J. (1990). Adolescent survey of gambling behavior in Minnesota: A benchmark. St. Paul, MN: Department of Human Services.Google Scholar
  48. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R., & Fulkerson, J. (1993). Toward the development of an adolescent gambling problem severity Scale. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 371–386.Google Scholar
  49. Wynne, H. J., Smith, G. J., & Jacobs, D. F. (1996). Adolescent gambling and problem gambling in Alberta. Prepared for the Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission. Edmonton: Wynne Resources LTD.Google Scholar
  50. Zenker, S. I., & Wolfgang, A. K. (1982). Relationship of Machiavellianism and locus of control to preferences for leisure activity by college men and women. Psychological Reports, 50, 583–586.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rina Gupta
    • 1
  • Jeffrey L. Derevensky
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Educational & Counselling PsychologyMcGill UniversityMontreal
  2. 2.McGill UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations