Journal of Science Teacher Education

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 23–48

Working within the Zone of Proximal Development: Formative Assessment as Professional Development

  • Doris Ash
  • Karen Levitt


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achinstein, B. & Villar, A. (2002). Politics of the mentoring process for novices: Negotiating professional relationships and new teacher learning Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association in New Orleans.Google Scholar
  2. Ash, D., Greene, C. & Austin, M. (2000). Inquiry by teachers. Connect 13(4), pp 1–2.Google Scholar
  3. Ash, D., & Levitt, K., & Tucker, L. (2001, January). Working in the zone of proximal development: Formative assessment as professional development. Paper present at the annual meeting of the Association for Education of Teachers of Science in Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  4. Ash, D., Levitt, K., Cheong, W., Hess, S., & Sciulli, J. (2001, March). Learning groups as professional development. Paper presented at NARST Annual meeting, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  5. Ash, D. & Klein, C. (1999). Inquiry in the informal learning environment. In J. Minstrell & E. VanZee (Eds.), Teaching and learning in an inquiry–based classroom; Washington, DC: AAAS.Google Scholar
  6. Ash, D., Tucker, L., Austin, M., Ferguson, G., Kraft, B., Heller, J. (1999, March) Using assessment as a professional development strategy with inquiry in the elementary classroom. Paper presented at NARST annual meeting, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  7. Ball, D.L. & Cohen, D.K. (1999) Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice–based theory of professional development. In G. Sykes & L. Darling–Hammond (Eds.) Teaching as the learning professional Handbook of policy and practice (pp 3–32). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  8. Black, P.J. and Wiliam, D (1998b) Inside the Black Box. School of Education, King's College London.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, A. L., Ash, D., Rutherford, M., Nakagawa, K., Gordon A., & Campione, J.C. (1993). Distributed expertise in the classroom. In G. Salomon, (Ed.), Distributed Cognitions, New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, A.L. & Ferrara, R. A. (1985). Diagnosing zones of proximal development. I J. Wertsch (Ed.), Culture, communication and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives( pp. 273–305). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cheong, W. (2000). The power of questioning. Connect 13(4), pp 9–10.Google Scholar
  12. Harlen, W. (1998). The teaching of science in primary schools. London: David Fulton Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Harlen, W. (2000). How assessment can help learning through inquiry. Internal document, prepared for the Institute for Inquiry, Exploratorium.Google Scholar
  14. Harlen, W., Ash, D., Bartels, D. Rankin, L., Bevan, B, Tucker, L., Ebisuzaki, D & Kanevsky, R. (2000, April). Supporting learning as inquiry at the elementary level: the role of formative assessment. Paper present at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting in New Orleans.Google Scholar
  15. Hickey (2001). Engaged participation vs. marginal non–participation: A stridently sociocultural approach to achievement motivation. (In review in Elementary School Journal).Google Scholar
  16. Jones, G., Rua, & Carter (1998). Science teachers' conceptual growth within Vygotsky's zone of proximal Development. Journal of Research in Science Teaching (35(9), pp. 967–985.Google Scholar
  17. Moschkovich, J. (1989, April). Constructing a problem space through appropriation: a case study of tutoring during computer exploration. Paper presented at the meetings of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). San Francisco.Google Scholar
  18. Moschovich, J. (2001). A case study of appropriation in teaching and learning mathematics. Paper submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  19. Loucks–Horsely, S., Hewson, P. Love, N. & Stiles, K.E. (1998) Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  20. Newman, D., Griffin, P., & Cole, M. (1989) The Construction Zone. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Rogoff, B. (1994). Developing understanding of the idea of communities of learners. Scribner Award address at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting in New Orleans.Google Scholar
  22. Rogoff, B. (1995). Observing sociocultural activity on three planes: Participatory appropriation, guided participation, and apprenticeship. In J. V. Wertsch, P. del Rio, & A. Alvarez (Eds.), Sociocultural studies of mind, (pp. 139–164.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15, pp. 4–14.Google Scholar
  24. Van Driel, J. H., Verloop, N., & de Vos, W. (1998). Developing science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, Journal of Research in Science Teaching 35, pp. 673–695.Google Scholar
  25. van Zee, E, Iwasyk, M, Kurose, A, Simpson, D. & Wild, J. (1997). Student and teacher questioning during conversations abut science. Paper delivered for the AAAS meeting, Seattle WA.Google Scholar
  26. Vygotsky, L. S. (1934/1986) The development of scientific concepts in childhood. A. Kozulin (Ed.). In Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  27. Wells, G. (1999) Dialogic Inquiry: toward a sociocultural practice and theory of education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doris Ash
    • 1
  • Karen Levitt
    • 2
  1. 1.Education Department, 231 Crown CollegeUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzU.S.A
  2. 2.Education Department, 412B Canevin HallDuquesne UniversityPittsburghU.S.A

Personalised recommendations