Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite, fluoride-substituted hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite

  • M. WeiEmail author
  • J. H. Evans
  • T. Bostrom
  • L. Grøndahl


Powders of hydroxyapatite (HA), partially fluoride-substituted hydroxyapatite (fHA), and fluorapatite (FA) were synthesized in house using optimum methods to achieve relatively pure powders. These powders were assessed by the commonly used bulk techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectroscopies, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and F-selective electrode. In addition, the current study has employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), involving morphological observation, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), as an effective analytical technique to evaluate the powders at a microscopic level. The HA and fHA particles were elongated platelets about 20×60 nm in size, while FA particles were over twice this size. Calcination of the HA and fHA powders at 1000 °C for 1 h resulted in increased grain size and crystallinity. The calcined fHA material appeared to possess a crystal structure intermediate between HA and FA, as evidenced by the (3 0 0) peak shift in XRD, as well as by the position of the hydroxyl bands in the FTIR spectra. This result was consistent with electron diffraction of individual particles. Small levels of impurities in some of the powders were identified by EDX and electron diffraction, and the carbonate content was detected by FTIR. The use of TEM in conjunction with the bulk techniques has allowed a more thorough assessment of the apatites, and has enabled the constituents in these closely related apatite powders to be identified.


Apatite Hydroxyapatite Electron Diffraction Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Emission Spectroscopy 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Wei
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. H. Evans
    • 1
  • T. Bostrom
    • 2
  • L. Grøndahl
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Rehabilitation Science and EngineeringQueensland University of Technology, Gardens Point CampusBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Analytical Electron Microscopy FacilityQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbane, QLDAustralia
  3. 3.School of Physical and Chemical SciencesQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbane, QLDAustralia

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