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International Review of Education

, Volume 49, Issue 1–2, pp 153–176 | Cite as

Primary Schooling in China and India: Understanding How Socio-Contextual Factors Moderate the Role of the State

  • Nirmala Rao
  • Kai-Ming Cheng
  • Kirti Narain
Article

Abstract

This paper considers how state educational policy and other sociocontextual factors influence primary schooling in two large developing countries. In the late 1940s, national statistics for primary school enrolment and other human development indicators were comparable between China and India. Both countries then experienced major political transitions and embraced similar economic development priorities. Half a century later, reports prepared for the 2000 World Education Forum indicate that China had far outperformed India in terms of school enrolment ratios and on indices of the efficiency of primary education. This article considers the reasons for these differences. It discusses the role of the state, educational policy and its implementation, linkages among educational, economic and social policies, cultural belief systems that are relevant to education, classroom teaching and learning, teacher characteristics, and the physical conditions of schools.

Keywords

Primary Education Classroom Teaching Educational Policy Cultural Belief School Enrolment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nirmala Rao
    • 1
  • Kai-Ming Cheng
    • 1
  • Kirti Narain
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of EducationThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.LucknowIndia

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