Advertisement

Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 43, Issue 1–2, pp 49–64 | Cite as

Culture and Whistleblowing An Empirical Study of Croatian and United States Managers Utilizing Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions

  • A. A. Tavakoli
  • John P. Keenan
  • B. Cranjak-Karanovic
Article

Abstract

Leaders and managers of today's multinational corporations face a plethora of problems and issues directly attributable to the fact that they are operating in an international context. With work-sites, plants and/or customers based in another country, or even several countries, representing a vast spectrum of cultural differences, international trade and offshore operations, coupled with increased globalisation in respect to political, social and economic realities, contribute to new dilemmas that these leaders must deal with. Not the least of these being a Code of Ethics and ethical decision making.This paper examines the differences in culture between a group of managers from the United States and similar group from Croatia using Hofstede's theory of International Cultures. The study explores how these cultural dimensions may help in our understanding of the differences in reported whistleblowing. The authors then postulate four hypotheses regarding various aspects of whistleblowing. These Hypotheses were than tested using a survey administered to a sample of U.S.A. and Croatian managers. Finally, the paper discusses the findings and practical implications for contemporary managers in the international arena.

culture ethics Hofstede managers whistleblowing 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, N.: 1983, ‘Cross-Cultural Management Research: The Ostrich and the Trend’, Academy of Management Review 8(2), 226–232.Google Scholar
  2. Agacer, G. M. and T. S. Doupnik: 1991, ‘Perceptions of Auditor Independence: A Cross-Cultural Study’, The International Journal of Accounting 26, 220–237.Google Scholar
  3. Alford, C. F.: 1999, ‘Whistle-Blowers: How Much We Can Learn from Them Depends on How Much We Can Give Up’, The American Behavioral Scientist 43(2), 264–277.Google Scholar
  4. Beattie, B.: 2000, ‘Whistle Blowing’, New Zealand Management 47(4), 60.Google Scholar
  5. Bond, M. A. (ed.): 1988, The Cross-Cultural Challenge to Social Psychology (Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA).Google Scholar
  6. Burns, T. and G. M. Stalker: 1961, The Management of Innovation (Tavistock, London, U.K.).Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, J. R., L. W. Pant and D. J. Sharp: 1995, ‘An Exploratory Examination of International Differences in Auditors Ethical Perceptions’, Behavioral Research in Accounting 7, 37–64.Google Scholar
  8. Deal, T. E. and A. Kennedy: 1982, Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA).Google Scholar
  9. Faulkner and Gray: 1994, ‘Cognizant of Culture’, Small Business Reports: Business Bulletins 6.Google Scholar
  10. Figg, J.: 2000, ‘Whistleblowing’, The Internal Auditor 57, 30–37.Google Scholar
  11. Graham, J. W.: 1986 ‘Principled Organizational Dissent: A Theoretical Essay’, in B. M. Staw and L. L. Cummings (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 8 ( JAI Press Greenwich, CT), pp. 1–52.Google Scholar
  12. Hofstede, G.: 1980, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values (Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA).Google Scholar
  13. Hofstede, G.: 1984, ‘The Cultural Relativity of the Quality of Life Concept’, Academy of Management Review 9, 389–398.Google Scholar
  14. Hofstede, G.: 1997, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (London: McGraw-Hill).Google Scholar
  15. Jubb, P.: 1999, ‘Whistleblowing: A Restrictive Definition and Interpretation’, Journal of Business Ethics 21, 77–94.Google Scholar
  16. Kedia, B. L. and R. S. Bhagar: 1988, ‘Cultural Constraints on Transfer of Technology across nations: Implications for Research in International and Comparative Management’, Academy of Management Review 13(4), 559–571.Google Scholar
  17. Keenan, J. P.: 1990, ‘Upper-Level Managers and Whistleblowing: Determinants of Perceptions of Company Encouragement and Information about Where to Blow the Whistle’, Journal of Business and Psychology 5(2), 223–235.Google Scholar
  18. Keenan, J. P.: 1991, ‘Upper-Level Managers, Middle-Level Managers, and Whistleblowing: A Comparative Study and Evaluation’, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Miami Beach.Google Scholar
  19. Keenan, J. P.: 1995, ‘Whistleblowing and the First-Level Manager: Determinants of Feeling Obliged to Blow the Whistle’, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 10(3), 571–584.Google Scholar
  20. Keenan, J. P.: 2000, ‘Blowing the Whistle on Less Serious Forms of Fraud. A Study of Executives and Managers’, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal 12, 199–218.Google Scholar
  21. Keenan, J. P.: 2002, ‘Comparing Indian and American Managers on Whistleblowing’, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal 14(2, 3), 79–89.Google Scholar
  22. Keenan, J. P., and D. A. McLain: 1992, ‘Whistleblowing: A Conceptualization and Model’, in J. L. Wall and K. R. Jauch (eds.), Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, August 10–12 (Las Vegas, NV), pp. 350–352.Google Scholar
  23. Keenan, J. P. and R. Parikh: 2000, ‘Blowing the Whistle on Wrongdoing: A Cross-Cultural Study’, in Proceedings of the Applied Business Research Conference, March 13–17, Puerto Vallarta.Google Scholar
  24. Keenan, J. P. and S. Remington: 2002, ‘Cultural Influences on Whistleblowing: A Study of Philippine and U.S. Managers’, in Proceedings of the Thirty-First Annual Meeting of the Western Decision Sciences Institute (Las Vegas, NV), April 2–5, 2002.Google Scholar
  25. Keenan, J. P. and K. Xin: 1993 ‘Comparing Indian and American Managers on Whistleblowing: An Exploratory Study and Evaluation’, in D. F. Rogers and A. S. Raturi (eds.), 1993 Proceedings of the Decision Sciences Institute (Washington D.C.), pp. 368–371.Google Scholar
  26. Keenan, J. P. and K. Xin: 1999 ‘Comparing Chinese and American Managers on Whistleblowing: An Exploratory Study and Vvaluation’, in D. K. Despotis and C. Zopounidis (eds.), Decision Sciences Institute 5th Interntional; Conference Proceedings (Athens, Greece), pp. 736–739.Google Scholar
  27. Kroeber, A. L. and C. Kluckhohn: 1952, Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions, Vol. 7(1) (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA).Google Scholar
  28. Laurent, A.: 1986, ‘The Cross-Cultural Puzzle of International Human Resource Management’, Human Resource Management 25, 91–102.Google Scholar
  29. MacGregor, I: 2001, ‘Need to Protect Whistleblowers’, Australian Financial Review ( July 4), 51.Google Scholar
  30. McLain, D. A. and J. P. Keenan: 1999, ‘Risk, Information, and the Decision about Response to Wrongdoing in an Organization’, Journal of Business Ethics 19, 255–271.Google Scholar
  31. Miceli, M. P. and J. P. Near: 1988 ‘Individual and Situational Correlates of Whistleblowing’, Personnel Psychology 41, 267–281.Google Scholar
  32. Miceli, M. P. and J. P. Near: 1992, Blowing the Whistle, The Organizational and Legal Implications for Companies and Employees (Lexington Books, New York).Google Scholar
  33. O'Hara-Devereaux, M. and R. Johansen: 1994, Globalwork Bridging Distance, Culture and Time ( Jossey-Bass Publishers' San Francisco, CA).Google Scholar
  34. O'Toole, J. J.: 1979 ‘Corporate and Managerial Cultures’, in C. L. Cooper (ed.), Behavioral Problems in Organizations (Prentice-Hall, Englwood Cliffs, NJ).Google Scholar
  35. Oziel, C.: 2002, ‘U.K. Encourages Corporate Whistleblowers: Now Management will be the First, Not the Last, to Know about Potential Problems: Called a Win for Everyone’, National Post f/k/a The Financial Post, 16 ReutersGoogle Scholar
  36. Pettigrew, A. M.: 1979, ‘On Studying Organizational Cultures’, Administrative Science Quarterly 24, 570.Google Scholar
  37. Rogovsky, N.: 1996, IHRM Practices in Multinational Corporations: Developing IHRM Integrative Frame-Work (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA).Google Scholar
  38. Shafer, W. E. and L. L. Park: 1999, ‘An Empirical Investigation of Cultural Differences in Ethical Decision Making among U.S. Accounting Students’, Journal of Education for Business 74, 220–224.Google Scholar
  39. Schneider, S. C.: 1986, ‘National vs Corporate Culture: Implications for Human Resource Management’, Human Resource Management 27, 133–148.Google Scholar
  40. Schwartz, S. H. and W. Bilsky: 1990, ‘Toward a Theory of the Universal Content and Structure of Values: Extensions and Cross-Cultural Replications’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58, 878–891.Google Scholar
  41. Sims, R. L. and J. P. Keenan: 1998; ‘Predictors of External Whistleblowing: Organizational and Intrapersonal Variables’, Journal of Business Ethics 17, 411–421.Google Scholar
  42. Sims, R. L. and J. P. Keenan: 1999, ‘A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Managers' Whistleblowing Tendencies’, International Journal of Values-Based Management 12, 137–151.Google Scholar
  43. Trompenaars, F.: 1996, Riding the Waves of Culture (Wernon Sodenstrom, Finland).Google Scholar
  44. Tsui, J. and C. Windsor: 2001, ‘Some Cross Cultural Evidence on Ethical Reasoning’, Journal of Business Ethics 31, 143–150.Google Scholar
  45. United States Merit Systems Protection Board USMSPB: 1981, Whistleblowing and the Federal Employee (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).Google Scholar
  46. Vladimirova, A.: 2000, ‘Balkan States Stand Behind Business Code of Ethics’, Financial Times (March 10).Google Scholar
  47. Wines, W. A. and N. K. Napier: 1992, ‘Toward an Understanding of Cross-Cultural Ethics: A Tentative Model’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 831–842.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Tavakoli
    • 1
  • John P. Keenan
    • 2
  • B. Cranjak-Karanovic
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Business and EconomicsFayetteville State UniversityFayettevilleU.S.A.
  2. 2.Leadership ProgramsACCEL – Medaille CollegeOrchard ParkU.S.A.
  3. 3.Faculty of EconomicsUniversity of SplitSplitCroatia

Personalised recommendations