Journal of Clinical Geropsychology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 221–230

Self-Efficacy as a Mediator of Caregiver Coping: Development and Testing of an Assessment Model

  • Antonette M. Zeiss
  • Dolores Gallagher-Thompson
  • Steven Lovett
  • Jonathon Rose
  • Christine McKibbin
Article

Abstract

Development and utilization of two self-efficacy measures thought to be relevant to stressed family caregivers, Caregiver Self-Care Self-Efficacy and Caregiver Problem-Solving Self-Efficacy, are described. Data obtained in the context of a psychoeducational intervention program are available for 217 caregivers of frail and/or cognitively impaired elders. Analyses of psychometric properties of the efficacy measures demonstrate good internal consistency and test-retest reliability for both measures. In addition, both measures of self-efficacy are related to depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and caregiver distress as measured by the Zarit Burden Scale. Problem-Solving Self-efficacy also is related to subjective caregiver burden as measured by Zarit's Memory and Behavior Problem Checklist. Results are promising in terms of the utility of the measure and the application of self-efficacy theory to the caregiving situation. Limitations of these measures are discussed and suggestions made for improved second-generation self-efficacy scales.

self-efficacy caregivers older adults scale development 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol. Rev. 84: 191–215.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. Am. Psychol. 37: 122–147.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 4: 359–373.Google Scholar
  4. Barrera, M., Sandler, I., and Ramsey, T. (1981). Preliminary development of a scale of social support. Am. J. Commun. Psychol. 9: 435–447.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A., Ward, C., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., and Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 4: 53–63.Google Scholar
  6. Chenowith, B., and Spencer, B. (1986). Dementia: The experience of family caregivers. Gerontologist 26: 266–272.Google Scholar
  7. D'Zurilla, T. (1986). Problem-Solving Therapy: A Social Competence Approach to Clinical Intervention, Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Gallagher, D., Rappaport, M., Benedict, A., Lovett, S., and Silven, D. (1985). Reliability of Selected Interview and Self-Report Measures with Family Caregivers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  9. George, L., and Gwyther, L. (1986). Caregiver well-being: A multidimensional examination of family caregivers of demented adults. Gerontologist 26: 253–259.Google Scholar
  10. Heppner, P., and Anderson, W. (1985). The relationship between problem-solving, self-appraisal, and psychological adjustment. Cognit. Ther. Res. 9: 415–427.Google Scholar
  11. Lovett, S., and Gallagher, D. (1988). Psychoeducational interventions for family caregivers: Preliminary efficacy data. Behav. Ther. 19: 321–330.Google Scholar
  12. Moos, R., Cronkite, R., Billings, A., and Finney, J. (1985). Health and Daily Living Form Manual. Veterans Administration and Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  13. Rabins, P., Fitting, M., Eastham, J., and Zabora, J. (1990). Emotional adaptation over time in caregivers for chronically ill elderly people. Age Aging 19: 185–190.Google Scholar
  14. Schulz, R., Visintainer, P., and Williamson, G. (1990). Psychiatric and physical morbidity effects of caregiving. J. Gerontol.: Psychol. Sci. 45: 181–191.Google Scholar
  15. Stone, R., Cafferata, G., and Sangl, J. (1987). Caregivers of the frail elderly: A national profile. Gerontologist 27: 616–626.Google Scholar
  16. Telch, M., Bandura, A., Vinciguerra, P., Agras, A., and Stout, A. L. (1982). Social demand for consistency and congruence between self-efficacy and performance. Behav. Ther. 13: 694–701.Google Scholar
  17. Zarit, S., Reever, K., and Bach-Peterson, J. (1980). Relatives of the impaired elderly: Correlates of feelings of burden. Gerontologist 20: 649–655.Google Scholar
  18. Zarit, S., and Zarit, J. (1982). Families under stress: Intervention for caregivers of Senile Dementia patients. Psychother.: Theory Res. Practice 19: 461–471.Google Scholar
  19. Zeiss, A. (1984). Measures of Self-Efficacy for Home Care, Problem-Solving, and Social Activity. Mimeo, Caregiver Research Program, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonette M. Zeiss
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dolores Gallagher-Thompson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Steven Lovett
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jonathon Rose
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christine McKibbin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical CenterVeterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System (116B)Palo Alto
  2. 2.Division of Endocrinology, Gerontology, and MetabolismStanford University School of MedicineUSA

Personalised recommendations