International Journal of Stress Management

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 25–37 | Cite as

Importance of Human Needs During Retrospective Peacetime and the Persian Gulf War: Mideastern Employees

  • Thomas Li-Ping Tang
  • Abdul H. Safwat Ibrahim


This study examined the importance of needs during the retrospective peacetime in 1990 and the Persian Gulf War in 1991 using a sample of 378 employees in the Middle East. Results of factor analyses identified three levels of needs during peacetime and wartime. Factor structures of needs did change from peacetime to wartime and were different. The patterns of needs identified in this study were different from needs theories developed in the U.S. Results were discussed in light of cultural differences, available resources in the environment, and the Persian Gulf War.

importance of human needs peacetime wartime Mideastern employees 


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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Li-Ping Tang
    • 1
  • Abdul H. Safwat Ibrahim
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Management and Marketing, College of BusinessMiddle Tennessee State UniversityMurfreesboro
  2. 2.College of Specific EducationPort-SaidEgypt

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