Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Education

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 167–189 | Cite as

General Education Participation Improves the Social Contacts and Friendship Networks of Students with Severe Disabilities

  • Craig H. Kennedy
  • Lisa Sharon Cushing
  • Tiina Itkonen
Article

Abstract

One desired outcome of inclusive education is the enhanced social development of students with disabilities. Some have suggested that planned and systematic support of students with severe disabilities in general education environments may lead to greater social interaction between these students and their peers without disabilities. In an effort to analyze this proposition, we studied two students with severe disabilities as they began participating in general education classrooms. Using within-student multiple baseline designs across class periods, the effects of participating in general education were studied across a range of social participation indicator variables. Our results suggest that planned and systematic efforts to include students with severe disabilities into general education courses can have positive effects on their social contacts and friendship networks. Our findings are discussed in relation to policy efforts to establish inclusive education in public schools, strategies for structuring general education participation, and the potential effects such efforts can have on the social inclusion of students with disabilities.

inclusive education social integration mainstreaming 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Baer, D. M. (1993). To disagree with Meyer and Evans is to debate a cost-benefit ratio. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 18, 235–236.Google Scholar
  2. Billingsley, F. F. (1993). In my dreams: A response to some current trends in education. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 18, 61–63.Google Scholar
  3. Breen, C. G. (1990). Setting up and managing peer support networks. In C. G. Breen, C. H. Kennedy, & T. G. Haring (Eds.), Methods for facilitating the inclusion of students with disabilities in integrated school and community contexts (pp. 54–105). Santa Barbara: Graduate School of Education, University of California.Google Scholar
  4. Certo, N., Haring, N. G., & York, R. (1984). Public school integration of severely handicapped students. Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  5. Chiesa, M. (1994). Radical behaviorism: The philosophy and the science. Boston: Authors Cooperative.Google Scholar
  6. Cushing, L. S., & Kennedy, C. H. (in press). Academic effects on students without disabilities who serve as peer supports for students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.Google Scholar
  7. Deno, E. (1970). Special education as developmental capital. Exceptional Children, 37, 229–237.Google Scholar
  8. Dewey, J. (1925). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Dugan, E., Kamps, D., Leonard, B., Watkins, N., Rheinberger, A., & Stackhaus, J. (1995). Effects of cooperative learning groups during social studies for students with autism and fourth-grade peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 175–188.Google Scholar
  10. Dunn, L. (1968). Special education for the mildly retarded: Is much Or it justified? Exceptional Children, 35, 5–22.Google Scholar
  11. Edgar, E., & Polloway, E. A. (1994). Education for adolescents with disabilities: Curriculum and placement issues. Journal of Special Education, 27, 438–452.Google Scholar
  12. Falvey, M. A. (1994). Inclusive and heterogeneous schooling: Assessment, curriculum, and instruction. Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  13. Fryxell, D., & Kennedy, C. H. (1995). Placement along the continuum of services and its impact on students' social relationships. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 20, 259–269.Google Scholar
  14. Gartner, A., & Lipsky, D. (1987). Beyond special education: Toward a quality system of education for all students. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 367–395.Google Scholar
  15. Gaylord-Ross, R., & Haring, T. G. (1987). Social interaction research for adolescents with severe handicaps. Behavioral Disorders, 12, 264–275.Google Scholar
  16. Gottlieb, J. (1980). Educating mentally retarded persons in the mainstream. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  17. Grenot-Scheyer, M., Meyer, L. H., Park, H. S., & Henry, L. (1994, December). A measure of accommodating diversity in the classroom. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  18. Haring, T. G., Breen, C. G., Pitts-Conway, V., Lee, M., & Gaylord-Ross, R. (1987). Adolescent peer tutoring and special friends experiences. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 12, 280–286.Google Scholar
  19. Hayes, S. C. (1993). Why environmentally-based analyses are necessary in behavior analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 60, 461–464.Google Scholar
  20. Hunt, P., Staub, D., Alwell, M., & Goetz, L. (1994). Achievement by all students within the context of cooperative learning groups. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 19, 290–301.Google Scholar
  21. Kauffman, J. M., Agard, J. A, & Semmel, M. I. (1985). Mainstreaming: Learners and their environments. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.Google Scholar
  22. Kennedy, C. H., Homer, R. H., & Newton, J. S. (1989). Social contacts of adults with severe disabilities living in the community: A descriptive analysis of relationship patterns. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 14, 190–196.Google Scholar
  23. Kennedy, C. H., & Itkonen, T. (1994). Some effects of regular education participation on the social contacts and social networks of high school students with severe disabilities. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 19, 1–10.Google Scholar
  24. Kennedy, C. H., & Itkonen, T. (1995). Social relationships, influential variables, and change across the lifespan. In L. Koegel, R. I., Koegel, & G. Dunlap (Eds.), Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  25. Kennedy, C. H., Shukla, S., & Fryxell, D. (in press). Comparing the effects of educational placement on the social relationships of intermediate school students with severe disabilities. Exceptional Children.Google Scholar
  26. Lloyd, J. W., Singh, N. N., & Repp, A. C. (1991). The regular education initiative: Alternative perspectives on concepts, issues, and models. Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing.Google Scholar
  27. Newton, J. S., Stoner, S. K., Bellamy, G. T., Boles, S. M., Homer, R. H., LeBaron, N., Moskowitz, D., Romer, L., Romer, M., & Schlesinger, D. (1988). Valued outcomes information system (VOIS) operations manual. Eugene: University of Oregon, Center on Human Development.Google Scholar
  28. Nisbet, J. (1992). Natural supports in the school, at work, and in the community for people with severe disabilities. Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  29. O'Neill, R. F., Homer, R. H., Albin, R. W., Storey, K., & Sprague, R. (1990). Functional analysis: A practical assessment guide. Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing.Google Scholar
  30. Reynolds, M. C., Wang, M. C., & Walberg, H. J. (1987). The necessary restructuring of special and general education. Exceptional Children, 53, 391–398.Google Scholar
  31. Sailor, W. (1991). Special education in the restructured school. Remedial and Special Education, 12, 8–22.Google Scholar
  32. Sailor, W., Gee, K., & Karasoff, P. (1993). Full inclusion and school restructuring. In M. E. Snell (Ed.), Instruction of students with severe disabilities (4th Ed.) (pp. 1–30). New York: Merrill.Google Scholar
  33. Salisbury, C. L., Wilson, L., & Palombaro, M. M. (1994, December). Collaborative innovations project: Practitioners as partners in research and reform. Session presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  34. Skrtic, T. (1991a). The special education paradox: Equity as the way to excellence. Harvard Educational Review, 61, 148–206.Google Scholar
  35. Skrtic, T. (1991b). Behind special education. Denver: Love Publishing.Google Scholar
  36. Snell, M. E. (1983). Systematic instruction of the moderately and severely handicapped (2nd Ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.Google Scholar
  37. Snell, M. E. (1993). Instruction of students with severe disabilities (4th Ed.). New York: Merrill.Google Scholar
  38. Strain, P. S., Danko, C. D., & Kohler, (1995). Activity engagement and social interaction development in young children with autism: An examination of “free” intervention effects. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3, 108–123.Google Scholar
  39. Strain, P. S., & Kerr, M. M. (1981). Mainstreaming of children in schools: Research and programmatic issues. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Touchette, P. E., MacDonald, R. F., & Langer, S. N. (1985). A scatter plot analysis for identifying the stimulus control of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 343–351.Google Scholar
  41. Voeltz, L. M. (1980). Children's attitudes toward handicapped peers. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 455–464.Google Scholar
  42. Wang, M. C. (1989). Accommodating student diversity through adaptive instruction. In S. Stainback, W. Stainback, & M. Forest (Eds.), Educating all students in the mainstream of regular education (pp. 183–197). Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  43. Werts, M. G., Caldwell, N. K., & Wolery, M. (1996). The effects of fluent peer models on the observational learning of response chains by students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 53–66.Google Scholar
  44. Wilcox, B., & Bellamy, G. T. (1987). A comprehensive guide to the Activities Catalog: An alternative curriculum for youth and adults with severe disabilities. Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  45. Will, M. C. (1986). Educating children with learning problems: A shared responsibility. Exceptional Children, 52, 411–415.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Craig H. Kennedy
    • 1
  • Lisa Sharon Cushing
    • 2
  • Tiina Itkonen
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryMedical College of Pennsylvania and Hahnemann UniversityPittsburgh
  2. 2.Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Neurosciences Research CenterPittsburgh
  3. 3.Santa Barbara County SchoolsSanta Barbara

Personalised recommendations