Neurochemical Research

, Volume 28, Issue 3–4, pp 565–573 | Cite as

Investigation on Acetylcholine, Aspartate, Glutamate and GABA Extracellular Levels from Ventral Hippocampus During Repeated Exploratory Activity in the Rat

  • L. Bianchi
  • C. Ballini
  • M. A. Colivicchi
  • L. Della Corte
  • M. G. Giovannini
  • G. Pepeu


The extracellular levels of aspartate, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and acetylcholine (ACh) were investigated by microdialysis, coupled with HPLC, in the ventral hippocampus of rats during two 30-min exploration periods. Motor activity was monitored. During exploration I, an increase in motor activity associated with a 315% increase in aspartate, 181% in glutamate, and 264% in ACh levels, occurred during the first 10 min. The increase in GABA level reached a maximum of 257% during the second 10 min. The neurotransmitter levels returned to basal values within 40 min. During exploration II, 1 h later, a smaller increase in neurotransmitter levels and motor activity was observed. In both explorations, the increase in neurotransmitter levels was completely abolished by 1 and 3 μM TTX. A statistically significant relationship was found between neurotransmitter extracellular levels and motor activity, for aspartate and glutamate in exploration I, and for ACh in exploration I and II. In conclusion, exploratory activity is associated with or depends on the activation of neuronal systems in the ventral hippocampus releasing aspartate, glutamate, GABA, and ACh. The activation is dampened by habituation.

Acetylcholine excitatory amino acids GABA habituation microdialysis motor activity 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Bianchi
    • 1
  • C. Ballini
    • 1
  • M. A. Colivicchi
    • 1
  • L. Della Corte
    • 1
  • M. G. Giovannini
    • 1
  • G. Pepeu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Preclinical and Clinical PharmacologyUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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