Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 321–331 | Cite as

Investigating the Appraisal Patterns of Regret and Disappointment

  • Wilco W. van Dijk
  • Marcel Zeelenberg
Article

Abstract

Regret and disappointment are the two emotions that are most closely linked to decision making. This study compares the appraisal patterns of the two emotions. This is done in the context of the related negative emotions anger and sadness. The results show clear differences between regret and disappointment in this respect while replicating prior findings concerning the appraisal patterns of anger and sadness. The results are of interest for emotion researchers and decision researchers.

regret disappointment appraisal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bell, D. E. (1982). Regret in decision making under uncertainty. Operations Research, 30, 961–981.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, D. E. (1985). Disappointment in decision making under uncertainty. Operations Research, 33, 1–27.Google Scholar
  3. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Frijda, N. H. (1993). The place of appraisal in emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 357–387.Google Scholar
  5. Frijda, N. H., Kuipers, P., & Ter Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 212–228.Google Scholar
  6. Frijda, N. H., & Zeelenberg, M. (2001). Appraisal: What is the dependent? In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research (pp. 141–155). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Inman, J. J., Dyer, J. S., & Jia, J. (1997). A generalized utility model of disappointment and regret effects on post-choice valuation. Marketing Science, 16, 97–111.Google Scholar
  8. Lazarus, R. (1991). Progress on a cognitive–motivational–relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46, 819–834.Google Scholar
  9. Levine, L. J. (1996). The anatomy of disappointment: A naturalistic test of appraisal models of sadness, anger, and hope. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 337–359.Google Scholar
  10. Loomes, G., & Sugden, R. (1982). Regret Theory: An alternative theory of rational choice under uncertainty. Economic Journal, 92, 805–824.Google Scholar
  11. Loomes, G., & Sugden, R. (1986). Disappointment and dynamic inconsistency in choice under uncertainty. Review of Economic Studies, 53, 271–282.Google Scholar
  12. Mellers, B. A., Schwartz, A., & Ritov, I. (1999). Emotion-based choice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 332–345.Google Scholar
  13. Mowrer, O. H. (1960). Learning theory and behavior. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Ordóñez, L. D., & Connolly, T. (2000). Regret and responsibility: A reply to Zeelenberg et al. (1998). Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 81, 132–142.Google Scholar
  15. Ortony, A., Clore, G. L., & Collins, A. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Parkinson, B. (1997). Untangling the appraisal-emotion connection. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1, 62–79.Google Scholar
  17. Parkinson, B., & Manstead, A. S. R. (1992). Appraisal as a cause of emotion. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 122–149). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Pfister, H. R., Van der Pligt, J., & van Dijk, W. W. (2001). Temporal aspects of regret and disappointment and their impact on choice behavior. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  19. Roseman, I. J. (1984). Cognitive determinants of emotions: A structural theory. In P. Shaver (Ed.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 11–36). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Roseman, I. J., Antoniou, A. A., & Jose, P. E. (1996). Appraisal determinants of emotions: Constructing a more accurate and comprehensive theory. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 241–277.Google Scholar
  21. Roseman, I. J., Spindel, M. S., & Jose, P. E. (1990). Appraisal of emotion-eliciting events: Testing a theory of discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 899–915.Google Scholar
  22. Roseman, I. J., Wiest, C., & Swartz, T. S. (1994). Phenomenology, behaviors, and goals differentiate discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 206–211.Google Scholar
  23. Scherer, K. R. (1984). Emotion as a multi-component process. In P. Shaver (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology: Vol. 5. Emotions, relationships, and health (pp. 37–63). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A., & Johnstone, T. (Eds.). (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, research, application. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Smith, C. A., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1985). Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 813–838.Google Scholar
  26. Smith, C. A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1990). Emotion and adaptation. In L.A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 609–637). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  27. van Dijk, W. W., & Van der Pligt, J. (1997). The impact of probability and magnitude of outcome on disappointment and elation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69, 277–284.Google Scholar
  28. van Dijk, W. W., Van der Pligt, J., & Zeelenberg, M. (1999). Effort invested in vain: The impact of effort on the intensity of disappointment and regret. Motivation and Emotion, 23, 203–220.Google Scholar
  29. van Dijk, W. W., & Zeelenberg, M. (2002). What do we talk about when we talk about disappointment? Distinguishing outcome-related disappointment from person-related disappointment. Cognition and Emotion, 16, 787–807.Google Scholar
  30. van Dijk, W. W., Zeelenberg, M. & Van der Pligt, J. (1999). Not having what you want versus having what you don't want: The impact of type of negative outcome on the experience of disappointment and related emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 129–148Google Scholar
  31. Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548–573.Google Scholar
  32. Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (1999). On service delivery that might have been: Behavioral responses to disapointment and regret. Journal of Service Reserach, 2, 86–97.Google Scholar
  33. Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (in press). Beyond valence in customer dissatisfaction; A review and new findings on behavioral responses to regret and disappointment in failed services. Journal of Business Research.Google Scholar
  34. Zeelenberg, M., van Dijk, W. W., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2000). Regret and responsibility resolved? Evaluating Ordóñez and Connolly's (2000) conclusions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 81, 143–154.Google Scholar
  35. Zeelenberg, M., van Dijk, W. W., Manstead, A. S. R., & Van der Pligt, J. (1998). The experience of regret and disappointment. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 221–230.Google Scholar
  36. Zeelenberg, M., van Dijk, W. W., Manstead, A. S. R., & Van der Pligt, J. (2000). On bad decisions and disconfirmed expectancies: The psychology of regret and disappointment. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 521–541.Google Scholar
  37. Zeelenberg, M., van Dijk, W. W., Van der Pligt, J., Manstead, A. S. R., Van Empelen, P., & Reinderman, D. (1998). Emotional reactions to the outcomes of decisions: The role of counterfactual thought in the experience of regret and disappointment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 75, 117–141.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilco W. van Dijk
    • 1
  • Marcel Zeelenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Social PsychologyVrije UniversiteitAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Social PsychologyTilburg UniversityTilburgThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations