Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 107, Issue 3, pp 683–695 | Cite as

Variability of Mixed-Layer Heights over the Indian Ocean and Central Arabian Sea during INDOEX, IFP-99

  • D. Bala Subrahamanyam
  • Radhika Ramachandran
  • K. Sen Gupta
  • Tuhin K. Mandal


The upper air data collected from the balloon-borne GLASS Sondes launched from the Oceanic Research Vessel (ORV) Sagar Kanya during the Intensive Field Phase of the Indian Ocean experiment (INDOEX, IFP-99;SK-141 Cruise) are utilized forstudying the variability in the mixed-layer heights observed over the western tropical Indian Ocean and central Arabian Sea. During the entire cruise, typical daytime convective mixed-layer heights (roughly corresponding to 1400 LT) obtained from θV and q profiles, were observed to be in the range 200–900 m. Shallowmixed -layer heights are observed, in general, over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Over the central Arabian Sea, vertical profiles of θV and q demonstrate a double mixed-layer structure of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), which gradually disappears close to the Indian coastline.

Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Lifting condensation level (LCL) Marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) Mixed layer height Ocean-atmosphere interaction 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Betts, A. K. and Albrecht, B. A.: 1987, 'Conserved Variable Analysis of the Convective Boundary Layer Thermodynamic Structure over the Tropical Oceans', J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 83-99.Google Scholar
  2. Bhat, G. S., Gadgil, S., Kumar, P. V. H., Kalsi, S. R., Madhusoodanan, P., Murty, V. S. N., Rao, C. V. K. P., Babu, V. R., Rao, L. V. G., Rao, R. R., Ravichandran, M., Reddy, K. G., Rao, P. S., Sengupta, D., Sikka, D. R., Swain, J., and Vinayachandran, P. N.: 2001, 'BOBMEX: The Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment', Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 2217-2243.Google Scholar
  3. Garratt, J. R.: 1992, The Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 316 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Hasse, L.: 1990, 'Oceanic Micrometeorological Field Experiments: An Historical Perspective', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 50, 139-146.Google Scholar
  5. Holt, T. and Raman, S.: 1985, 'Aircraft and Ship Observations of the Mean Structure of the Marine Boundary Layer over the Arabian Sea during MONEX-79', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 33, 259-282.Google Scholar
  6. Holt, T. and Raman, S.: 1986, 'Observations of the Mean and Turbulence Structure of the Marine Boundary Layer over the Bay of Bengal during MONEX-79', Mon. Wea. Rev. 114, 2176-2190.Google Scholar
  7. Holt, T. and Raman, S.: 1987, 'A Comparison of the Significant Features of the Marine Boundary Layers over the East Central Arabian Sea and the North Central Bay of Bengal during MONEX-79', MAUSAM. 38, 171-176.Google Scholar
  8. Kumar, M. R. R. and Rao, L. V. G.: 1989, 'Latitudinal Variation of Air Sea Fluxes in the Western Indian Ocean during Austral Summer and Fall', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 49, 99-107.Google Scholar
  9. Kumar, M. R. R. and Rao, L. V. G.: 1990, 'Annual Mean Statistics of the Surface Fluxes of the Tropical Indian Ocean', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 51, 299-312.Google Scholar
  10. Kumar, M. R. R., Sadhuram, Y., Michael, G. S., and Rao, L. V. G.: 1990, 'Structure of the Marine Boundary Layer over North Western Indian Ocean during 1983 Summer Monsoon', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 67, 213-227.Google Scholar
  11. Lambert, D. and Durand, P.: 1999, 'The Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer during SEMAPHORE. I: Mean Vertical Structure and Non-axisymmetry of Turbulence', Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 495-512.Google Scholar
  12. Lambert, D., Durand, P., Thoumieux, F., Benech, B., and Druilhet, A.: 1999, 'The Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer during SEMAPHORE. II: Turbulence Profiles in the Mixed Layer', Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 513-528.Google Scholar
  13. Madan, O. P. et al.: 1999,Meteorological Analysis during INDOEX, Intensive Field Phase-1999, Volume II: Wind Analysis and Trajectories, Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, 110016, India.Google Scholar
  14. Manghanani, V., Raman, S., Niyogi, D. S., Vinayaka, P., Morrison, J. M., Ramana, M. V., and Raju, J. V. S.: 2000, 'Marine Boundary Layer Variability over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX (1998)', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 97, 411-430.Google Scholar
  15. Parasnis, S. S. and Morwal, S. B.: 1993, 'Thermodynamic Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Arabian Sea as Revealed by MONSOON-77 Data', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 63, 365-380.Google Scholar
  16. Plate, E. J.: 1982, Engineering Meteorology, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Oxford, NewYork, 740 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Ramanathan, V., Crutzen, P. J., Althausen, D., Anderson, J., Andreae, M. O., Clarke, A. D., Collins, W. D., Coakley, J. A., Heymsfield, A. J., Holben, B., Jayaraman, A., Kiehl, J. T., Krishnamurti, T. N., Lelieveld, J., Mitra, A. P., Novakov, T., Orgon, J. A., Podgorny, I. A., Prospero, J.M., Priestly, K., Quinn, P. K., Rajeev, K., Rasch, P., Rupert, S., Sadourney, R., Satheesh, S. K., Sheridan, P., Shaw, G. E., and Valero, F. P. J.: 2001, 'The Indian Ocean Experiment: Wide Spread Haze from South and Southeast Asia and its Climate Forcing', J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371-28398.Google Scholar
  18. Sam, N. V., Mohanty, U. C., and Satyanarayana, A. N. V.: 2000, 'Conserved Variable Analysis of the Marine Boundary Layer and Air-Sea Exchange Processes Using BOBMEX-Pilot Data Sets', Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.) 109, 305-314.Google Scholar
  19. Satyanarayana, A. N. V., Mohanty, U. C., Niyogi, D. S., Raman, S., Lykossov, V. N., Warrior, H., and Sam, N. V.: 2001, 'A Study on Air-Sea Exchange Processes in the ITCZ and Non-ITCZ Regimes over Indian Ocean with INDOEX, IFP-99 Data', Curr. Sci. Suppl. 80, 39-45.Google Scholar
  20. Smith, S. D., Fairall, C. W., Geernaert, G. L., and Hasse, L.: 1996, 'Air-Sea Fluxes: 25 Years of Progress', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 78, 247-290.Google Scholar
  21. Stull, R. B.: 1988, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 666 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Subrahamanyam, D. B. and Radhika Ramachandran: 2002, 'Air-Sea Interface Fluxes over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX, IFP-99', J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 64/3, 291-305.Google Scholar
  23. Subrahamanyam, D. B., Radhika Ramachandran, Sen Gupta, K., Praveena Krishnan, Kunhikrishnan,P. K., and Sudha Ravindran: 2002, 'Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies over the IndianOcean during INDOEX, IFP-99', SPL Scientific Report, Also available at: http://www. Scholar
  24. Subrahamanyam, D. B., Sen Gupta, K., Sudha Ravindran, and Praveena Krishnan: 2001, 'Study of Sea Breeze and Land Breeze along the West Coast of Indian Sub-Continent over the Latitude Range 15° N to 8° N during INDOEX, IFP-99 (SK-141) Cruise', Curr. Sci. (Suppl.) 80, 85-88.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Bala Subrahamanyam
    • 1
  • Radhika Ramachandran
    • 1
  • K. Sen Gupta
    • 1
  • Tuhin K. Mandal
    • 2
  1. 1.Space Physics LaboratoryVikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ThiruvananthapuramKeralaIndia
  2. 2.National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations