Catalysis Letters

, Volume 86, Issue 4, pp 151–156 | Cite as

The Locus of Sulfate Sites on Sulfated Zirconia

  • Rachel Marcus
  • Ulrike Diebold
  • Richard D. Gonzalez
Article

Abstract

The surface of sulfated zirconia was probed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was observed that the entire inventory of sulfur could be completely removed by sputtering the surface using an argon beam. Calibration using a TiO2(110) standard resulted in a surface concentration of 2.85 sulfur atoms/nm2. This is in reasonable agreement with a value of 4.15 sulfur atoms/nm2 based on sulfur analysis on the assumption that all of the sulfur was located at the surface. These results suggest that most, if not all, of the sulfur is near or at the surface. When charging was taken into account, we observed that the oxidation state of sulfur did not change following catalyst deactivation during the isomerization of n-butane. We also determined that the entire inventory of sulfur was present as SO42-. These results reinforce previous studies suggesting that catalyst deactivation occurs as the result of carbon deposition and not a change in the oxidation state of sulfur.

sulfated zirconia X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sulfur 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    B. Li and R. D. Gonzalez, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 35 (1996) 3141.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    C. J. Brinker and G. W. Scherer, Sol–Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol–Gel Processing (Academic Press, Boston, MA, 1990).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    B. Li and R. D. Gonzalez, Catal. Lett. 54 (1998) 5.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Soo Kim, J. G. Goodwin, Jr. and D. Galloway, Catal. Today 63 (2000) 21.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    G. Yaluris, R. B. Larson, J. M. Kobe, M. R. Gonzalez, K. B. Fogash and J. A. Dumesic, J. Catal. 158 (1996) 336.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    R. Marcus, R. D. Gonzalez, E. Kugler and A. Auroux, J. Chem. Eng. Commun. (in press).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    B. Li and R. D. Gonzalez, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 55.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    D. A. Ward and E. J. Ko, J. Catal. 150 (1994) 18.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    E. L. D. Hebenstreit, W. Hebenstreit and U. Diebold, Surf. Sci. 470 (2001) 347.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    J. F. Moulder, W. F. Stickle, P. E. Sobol and K. D. Bomben, Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer, Physical Electronics Division, Eden Prairie, 1992).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    B. Li and R. D. Gonzalez, Appl. Catal. 165 (1997) 291.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    L. M. Kustov, V. B. Kazansky, F. Figueras and D. Tichit, J. Catal. 150 (1994) 143.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel Marcus
    • 1
  • Ulrike Diebold
    • 2
  • Richard D. Gonzalez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations